Humayun – The eldest son of Babur

Originally posted on The C Minds :
Humayun was the eldest son of Babur. Humayun means “fortune” but he remained the most unfortunate ruler of the Mughal Empire. Humayun had three brothers, Kamran, Askari and Hindal. Humayun divided the empire among his brothers but this proved to be a great blunder on his part. Kamran was…

Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire

Originally posted on The C Minds :
Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire in India. His original name was Zahiruddin Muhammad. He was related to Timur from his father’s side and to Chengiz Khan through his mother. Babur succeeded his father Umar Shaikh Mirza as the ruler of Farghana. But he was soon defeated…

The Bhakti Movement

Originally posted on The C Minds :
In the ninth century Sankara started a Hindu revivalist movement giving a new orientation to Hinduism. He was born in Kaladi in Kerala. His doctrine of Advaita or Monism was too abstract to appeal to the common man. Moreover, there was a reaction against the Advaita concept of Nirgunabrahman…

The Sufism

Originally posted on The C Minds :
Sufism was a liberal reform movement within Islam. It had its origin in Persia and spread into India in the eleventh century. The first Sufi saint Shaikh Ismail of Lahore started preaching his ideas. The most famous of the Sufi saints of India was Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti, who settled…

The Art and Architecture of Delhi Sultanate

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The art and architecture of the Delhi Sultanate period was distinct from the Indian style. The Turks introduced arches, domes, lofty towers or minarets and decorations using the Arabic script. They used the skill of the Indian stone cutters. They also added colour to their buildings by using marbles, red…

The Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320)

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The advent of the Khalji dynasty marked the zenith of Muslim imperialism in India. The founder of the Khalji dynasty was Jalaluddin Khalji. He was seventy years old when he came to power. He was generous and lenient. Malik Chhajju, nephew of Balban was allowed to remain the governor…

The Battle of Tarain (1191-1192)

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The Battles of Tarain, also known as the Battles of Taraori. The Hindu princes of north India formed a confederacy under the command of Prithiviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj rose to the occasion, and defeated Ghori in the battle of Tarain near Delhi in 1191 A.D. Muhammad Ghori felt greatly humiliated…

Life of Harsha

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The founder of the family of Harsha was Pushyabhuti. Pushyabhutis were the feudatories of the Guptas. They called themselves Vardhanas. After the Hun invasions they assumed independence. The first important king of Pushyabhuti dynasty was Prabhakaravardhana. His capital was Thaneswar, north of Delhi. He assumed the title Maharajadhiraja and…

The Pandyas kingdom

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The Pandyas ruled over the present day southern Tamil Nadu. Their capital was Madurai. The earliest kings of the Pandyan dynasty were Nediyon, Palyagasalai Mudukudumi Peruvaludhi and Mudathirumaran. There were two Neduncheliyans. The first one was known as Aryappadai Kadantha Neduncheliyan (one who won victories over the Aryan forces).…

The Sangam Age

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The Sangam Age constitutes an important chapter in the history of South India. According to Tamil legends, there existed three Sangams (Academy of Tamil poets) in ancient Tamil Nadu popularly called Muchchangam. These Sangams flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandyas. The first Sangam, held at Then Madurai,…

The Gandhara school of art

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The home of the Gandhara school of art is the territory in and around Peshawar in northwestern India. The best of the Gandhara sculpture was produced during the first and second centuries A.D. It originated during the reign of Indo-Greek rulers but the real patrons of this school of…

The Kanishka and Buddhism

Originally posted on The C Minds :
Kanishka embraced Buddhism in the early part of his reign. However, his coins exhibit the images of not only Buddha but also Greek and Hindu gods. It reflects the Kanishka’s toleration towards other religions. In the age of Kanishka the Mahayana Buddhism came into vogue. It is different in…

The Sunga Dynasty

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The founder of the Sunga dynasty was Pushyamitra Sunga, who was the commander-in-chief under the Mauryas. He assassinated the last Mauryan ruler and usurped the throne. The most important challenge to the Sunga rule was to protect north India against the invasions of the Bactrian Greeks from the northwest.…

Bindusara (298 – 273 B.C.)

Originally posted on The C Minds :
Bindusara was called by the Greeks as “Amitragatha” meaning slayer of enemies. He is said to have conquered the Deccan up to Mysore. Taranatha, the Tibetan monk states that Bindusara conquered 16 states comprising ‘the land between the two seas’. The Sangam Tamil literature also confirms the Mauryan invasion…

Chandragupta Maurya (322 – 298 B.C.)

Originally posted on The C Minds :
Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Mauryan Empire. He, at the young age of 25, captured Pataliputra from the last ruler of the Nanda dynasty, Dhanananda. In this task he was assisted by Kautilya, who was also known as Chanakya or Vishnugupta. After firmly establishing his power in…

Battle of Hydaspes

Originally posted on The C Minds :
In 327 B.C. Alexander crossed the Hindukush Mountains and spent nearly ten months in fighting with the tribes. He crossed the Indus in February 326 B.C. with the help of the bridge of boats.He was warmly received by Ambhi, the ruler of Taxila. From there Alexander sent a message…

Ajatasatru – The Haryanka Dynasty

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The reign of Ajatasatru was remarkable for his military conquests. He fought against Kosala and Vaisali. His won a great success against a formidable confederacy led by the Lichchavis of Vaisali. This had increased his power and prestige. This war lasted for about sixteen years. It was at this…

Bimbisara (546 – 494 B.C.) – A King of Magadha

Originally posted on The C Minds :
Bimbisara belonged to the Haryanka dynasty. He consolidated his position by matrimonial alliances. His first matrimonial alliance was with the ruling family of Kosala. He married Kosaladevi, sister of Prasenajit. He was given the Kasi region as dowry which yielded large revenue. Bimbisara married Chellana, a princess of the…

Gautama Buddha

Originally posted on The C Minds :
Gautama or Siddhartha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in 567 B.C. in Lumbini Garden near Kapilavastu. His father was Suddodhana of the Sakya clan and mother Mayadevi. As his mother died at child birth, he was brought up by his aunt Prajapati Gautami. At the age of sixteen…

Vardhamana Mahavira and Jain Tradition.

Originally posted on The C Minds :
Vardhamana Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara of the Jain tradition. He was born at Kundagrama near Vaisali to Kshatriya parents Siddhartha and Trisala. He married Yasoda and gave birth to a daughter. At the age of thirty he became an ascetic and wandered for twelve years. In the 13th…

The Vedic literature

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The word ‘Veda’ is derived from the root ‘vid’, which means to know. In other words, the term ‘Veda’ signifies ‘superior knowledge’. The Vedic literature consists of the four Vedas – Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. The Rig Veda is the earliest of the four Vedas and it consists…

The Harappan sculpture

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The Harappan sculpture revealed a high degree of workmanship. Figures of men and women, animals and birds made of terracotta and the carvings on the seals show the degree of proficiency attained by the sculptor. The figure of a dancing girl from Mohenjodaro made of bronze is remarkable for…

The Harappan Civilization

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The earliest excavations in the Indus valley were done at Harappa in the West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind. Both places are now in Pakistan. The findings in these two cities brought to light a civilization. It was first called the ‘The Indus Valley Civilization’. But this civilization was…

The Indian subcontinent

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The Indian subcontinent is a well-defined geographical unit. It may be divided into three major regions: the Himalayan Mountains, the Indo-Gangetic Plains and the Southern Peninsula. There are five countries in the subcontinent – India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. India is the largest among them and it comprises…

The Great Himalayan Mountains

Originally posted on The C Minds :
The Himalayan Mountains are situated on the north of India starting from the Pamir in the extreme northwest of India, the mighty Himalayan range extends towards northeast. The Himalayas or Himalaya is a mountain range in the South Asia, which separates the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Tibetan Plateau.  It…