Aristotle – The greatest philosophers of all time.

Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) numbers among the greatest philosophers of all time. Aristotle is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, making contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theater. He was a student of Plato who in turn studied under Socrates. Judged solely in terms of his philosophical influence, only Plato is his peer: Aristotle’s works shaped centuries of philosophy from Late Antiquity through the Renaissance, and even today continue to be studied with keen, non-antiquarian interest. A prodigious researcher and writer, Aristotle left a great body of work, perhaps numbering as many as two-hundred treatises, from which approximately thirty-one survive. His extant writings span a wide range of disciplines, from logic, metaphysics and philosophy of mind, through ethics, political theory, aesthetics and rhetoric, and into such primarily non-philosophical fields as empirical biology, where he excelled at detailed plant and animal observation and description. In all these areas, Aristotle’s theories have provided illumination, met with resistance, sparked debate, and generally stimulated the sustained interest of an abiding readership.Aristotle’s emphasis on good reasoning combined with his belief in the scientific method forms the backdrop for most of his work. For example, in his work in ethics and politics, Aristotle identifies the highest good with intellectual virtue; that is, a moral person is one who cultivates certain virtues based on reasoning. And in his work on psychology and the soul, Aristotle distinguishes sense perception from reason, which unifies and interprets the sense perceptions and is the source of all knowledge.

अरस्तु एक यूनानी दार्शनिक थे। वे प्लेटो के शिष्य व सिकंदर के गुरु थे। उनका जन्म स्टेगेरिया नामक नगर में हुआ था। अरस्तु ने भौतिकी, आध्यात्म, कविता, नाटक, संगीत, तर्कशास्त्र, राजनीति शास्त्र, नीतिशास्त्र, जीव विज्ञान सहित कई विषयों पर रचना की। प्लेटो, सुकरात और अरस्तु पश्चिमी दर्शनशास्त्र के सबसे महान दार्शनिकों में एक थे। उन्होंने पश्चिमी दर्शनशास्त्र पर पहली व्यापक रचना की, जिसमें नीति, तर्क, विज्ञान, राजनीति और आध्यात्म का मेलजोल था। भौतिक विज्ञान पर अरस्तु के विचार ने मध्ययुगीन शिक्षा पर व्यापक प्रभाव डाला और इसका प्रभाव पुनर्जागरण पर भी पड़ा। अंतिम रूप से न्यूटन के भौतिकवाद ने इसकी जगह ले लिया। जीवविज्ञान उनके कुछ संकल्पनाओं की पुष्टि उन्नीसवीं सदी में हुई। उनके तर्कशास्त्र आज भी प्रासांगिक हैं। उनकी आध्यात्मिक रचनाओं ने मध्ययुग में इस्लामिक और यहूदी विचारधारा को प्रभावित किया और वे आज भी क्रिश्चियन, खासकर रोमन कैथोलिक चर्च को प्रभावित कर रही हैं। उनके पाठ आज भी कक्षाओं में पढ़ाए जाते हैं। अरस्तु ने बहुत सारी रचानाएं की थी, जिसमें कई नष्ट हो गई।

Hindi & English Versions are not same.

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