Adolph Hitler summary: Born on April 20, 1889, Adolph Hitler was Austrian by birth but became the leader of the German Nazi Party. He ruled the party from August 2, 1934 to April 30, 1945. He came into German politics and eventually was named chancellor by President Paul Von Hindenburg in January of 1933. Austrian customs official, and spent most of his childhood in the Linz area. When Hitler was 18, he used some of the money from his father’s inheritance and moved to Vienna to study art. Hitler was deeply disappointed when his applications to art school in Vienna were rejected, and he drifted for several years afterward. According to Hitler in his autobiography.