The First World War (1914-1918) had a great impact on The National Movement in India. Historiography means the history of historical writing or the art of writing history. The Indian National Movement was undoubtedly one of the biggest mass movements modern Society has ever seen, It was a movement which zinked millions of People of all classes and ideologies into political action and brought to its knees a mighty planter empire. The geography of India, its physical configuration, its mountains and rivers have had a decisive influence of its history. Walled off by the impenetrable Himalayan range in the north and neighbour on the sides by lesser ranges, India enjoys a practically isolated position in relation to the continent of Asia. After the First World War the Indian National Movement entered into a new phase. With the emergence of Freedom Fighters, the element of mass mobilization was introduced. Till the coming of independence three major mass movements were launched; Non-Cooperation (1920-22),Civil disobedience (1930-34) and Quit India(1942).Besides these mass movements the revolutionary movement, peasants and working class movements and state people’s movements also played a vital role in the struggle for freedom.In this period sufficient emphasis was laid on the socioeconomic content of Swaraj. The Communist Party of India and the Socialist groups within the Congress pointed out towards economic emancipation of the masses along with the importance of the struggle for independence. The Indian national movement, in fact, provides the only actual historical example of a semi-democratic or democratic type of political structure being successfully replaced or transformed. Politically, the period of ten decades between the Battle of Plassey (1757) and the Sepoy Mutiny (1857) was the era of expansion of the British Empire in India and of its subsequent consolidation. It was also the time of Indian social progressive reform and of the eradication of feudal and obscurantist forces in Indian life. In spite of the vileness of British motives, there was a growing cooperation between the ruler and the ruled, ushering in the making of modern India. Dynamic and farsighted personalities among Indians were the demand of the day. From the beginning the nationalists fought against attacks by the State on the freedoms of the Press, expression and association, and made the struggle for these freedoms an integral part of the national movement. During their brief spell in power, from 1937-39, the Congress ministries greatly extended the scope of civil liberties. The Indian National Congress which emerged in 1885, Championed the cause of Indian people. In derived its entire strength, especially after 1918 from the militancy and self sacrificing spirit of the masses. Satyagraha as a form of struggle was based on the active participation of the people and on the sympathy and support of the non-participating millions. The non-cooperation movement, the civil-dies-obedience movement and the quit-India movement were the reflection of the popularity of the Congress. The Muslim League which formed in 1906 gradually widened its base. The move towards Pakistan became inevitable when Jinnah and the Muslim League basing themselves on the theory that Hindu and Muslim were two nations which must have separate homeland, Put forward the demand for Pakistan. So on 15th August 1947, a hard-earned, prized freedom were own after long, glorious years of struggle but a bloody, tragic partition rent asunder the fabric of the emerging free nation.
The role of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian Freedom Struggle
The role of Mahatma Gandhi in Indian Freedom Struggle is considered the most significant as he single-handedly spearheaded the movement for Indian independence.The peaceful and non-violent techniques of Mahatma Gandhi formed the basis of freedom struggle against the British yoke. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869. After he came back to India from South Africa, where he worked as a barrister, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who led the Congress party, introduced Mahatma Gandhi to the concerns in India and the struggle of the people.The Indian independence movement came to a head between the years 1918 and 1922.A series of non-violence campaigns of Civil Disobedience Movement were launched by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.The focus was to weaken the British government through non cooperation.The protests were mainly against abolition of salt tax, land revenue, reducing military expenses etc.
Some Intersting Facts:
Which first movement was launched against the British in India?
– Swadeshi Movement
Which was a revolutionary who later turned into a yogi and a philosopher?
– Aurobindo Ghosh
Which first Indian leader to undergo imprisonment in 1882? – C. Vijiaraghavachari