The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the largest arts festival in the world and takes place every August for three weeks in Edinburgh, Scotland’s capital city. The world’s largest arts festival transforms Scotland’s capital every August. When thousands of performers take to hundreds of stages all over the city to present shows for every taste. Founded in 1947, the Festival grew out of the rubble of the Second World War with the aim of inviting the world’s best artists and companies to perform, whatever their nationality. It was a pioneering format and the first festival of its kind, under the direction of Rudolf Bing. The Edinburgh International Science Festival was founded in1989 as the very first public science festival in the world. It was inaugurated in style by Valentina Tereshkova, the first woman in space, and continues to attract some of the leading scientists in the world in a packed programme of fun and provocative workshops, demonstrations and talks.