The purpose of the Article is to underline the role of Travel Agencies in sustaining tourism development in India. The main objective of the article is to investigate the customer market practices of travel agencies in India and to make recommendations regarding the improved application of the principles of relationship marketing to the customer market of travel agencies in the province.
Complex, dynamic and competitive environment has posed many challenges to travel agencies regarding maintaining competitive advantages and it is imperative that the Travel agencies must have the marketing dynamic capabilities to quickly respond the changes taking place in the market. Based on the theory of marketing dynamic capabilities and the problems being faced by the travel agencies. Travel agencies are expected to be able to advise travelers about their destinations, such as the weather conditions, local ordinances and customs, attractions, and exhibitions. For those traveling internationally, agents also provide information on customs regulations, required documents (passports, visas, and certificates of inoculation), travel advisories, and currency exchange rates. The travel agencies play an important role in tourism development. CRSs and the internet offer travel agents tremendous opportunities to package holidays flexibly, according to the specific needs and preferences of each customer.
Travel agencies operating both locally as well as nationally and internationally, should be encouraged to provide tourism products in the county. For travelers, the internet allows direct communication with tourism suppliers facilitating requests for information, and allowing services and products to be purchased at any time and any place. Travel agencies as the major intermediaries in tourism are faced with a significant challenge. With the social and economic development and people’s living standards, travel service become a popular leisure time has come. Travel agencies are very sensitive services company because the customer wants the high quality of services to enjoy their travel. With the social development, tourism has become one of the industries with strongest development momentum and largest scale in global economy. Industry position and economic function of tourism in urban economic development strengthened gradually and function of pulling urban economy, driving social employment and promoting the culture and environment showed gradually. Historically booking travel was largely the scope of travel agents who had specialized systems and the connections to book the travel as well as accommodations. They also made the effort to know destinations so could make recommendations for their clients. While travel agents are still active and still provide value, much of what agents have done can be done by individuals sitting at their computers, and now travel related commerce accounts for a large percentage of Ebusiness.
The development, maintenance and strengthening of a relationship with customers will depend on the customers’ perception of the importance of key relationship dimensions. These dimensions will eventually influence the relationship learning of customers towards the establishment of a long-term relationship with the business. It becomes important for travel agencies to implement customer marketing strategies based on the customers’ experience with the travel agency through their level of relationship commitment, product quality and service delivery.
Expedia, the first online service provider, was founded in the U.S. in 1996; and started to offer flight, hotel and transfer service over internet. However, the sales boom was reached upon the introduction of dynamic packaging technology. The company, today, continue its operations over 30 countries.
Dynamic packaging helps online tour operators, travel management companies and other traditional travel companies to sell online. Airlines, hotels and tour operators benefit greatly from dynamic packaging technology.
In our contemporary world, internet has been an essential part of our daily life. Internet has also proven itself within the tourism industry recently. The latest development of the internet application in the tourism industry is dynamic packaging applications. The dynamic packaging application which presents opportunity to travel agencies to supply various holiday packages to the consumers in real time provides a competitive advantage. Today, consumers’ demand have changed.
They prefer preparing their own holiday packages to purchasing predetermined holiday packages because they want more personal holidays and think that current pre-determined packages are not flexible enough .More consumers require more individualized, flexible and selectable holiday programs and discover travel products of the online world. One of the arms of the semantic web can be found in the tourism industry as dynamic packaging applications.
Dynamic packaging is one of the most important innovations of online travel agencies. The application was first started by the Expedia; and today it is adopted and applied by many online travel agencies. Dynamic packaging provides consumers to reach multiple services with a single search. Thus, consumers can get lower price than they purchase each independent component individually. At the same time dynamic packaging provides suppliers to hide their discount rates. When we look at the customization feature, there are some customization options in three web sites.
Customers can determine destination or multiple destinations, departure and return dates, departure and return times, non-stop or refundable flights, round trip or one way trip in Expedia. In Travelocity, customers can determine destination, round trip or one way trip, departure and return dates, departure and return times, class of flight and airline alternatives. Customers can also determine destination, departure and return dates, departure and return times, non-stop flights and hotel name in Orbitz.com In today’s world where consumers are far more educated than they were several years ago, the travel industry’s future lies in a customer-driven mix of packages, individual products and self-organized travel. In the last few years, the travel industry has been buzzing with a sizzling new phrase “Dynamic Packaging”. Dynamic packaging helps provide a single, fully priced travel package that hides the price of the individual travel components.
It helps airlines, online travel agencies and tour operators to tap into different supplier systems in real time and bundle travel components (air, hotel, car, entertainment) into a single reservation. This is a seamless process which allows the user to choose from a huge range of travel and associated products from multiple vendors. A rules engine is used to configure and manage the different travel products that can be bundled and priced. These technological developments and changing consumer demands have brought several innovations in the travel industry.
One of these innovations is dynamic packaging application. By means of dynamic packaging application, travel agencies can offer real-time, customized, flexible and secure travel alternatives. On the other side, consumers are able to plan their travels and to make reservation through dynamic packaging applications. Heterogonous data regarding holiday can be gathered through dynamic packaging application so the consumers’ private needs can be meet. Worldwide, it is possible to talk about existence of travel agencies which apply dynamic packaging system. In this Article, Expedia.com, Travelocity.com and Orbitz.com travel agencies’ dynamic packaging applications were investigated. In dynamic packaging applications, choice, customization, flexibility, security and real time features must be found. These characteristics are the main specifications of the dynamic packaging applications distinct from traditional travel packages. As tour operators and vacation packagers continue to understand the value of implementing dynamic packaging technology, travel consumers are reaping the benefits. Travel consumers can now opt to customize vacations rather than accepting pre-packaged alternatives. Empowered travel consumers are exercising more control over their vacations. Dynamic packaging is thus, the most cost effective way for travel distributors to package, distribute and sell vacation products today.
The development community has long upheld that a thriving private sector is essential for economic development. SMEs play an instrumental, but often under-recognized, role in private sector growth. SMEs are a fundamental part of the economic fabric in developing countries, and they play a crucial role in furthering growth, innovation and prosperity. Unfortunately, they are strongly restricted in accessing the capital that they require to grow and expand, with nearly half of SMEs in developing countries rating access to finance as a major constraint. The SME sector is the backbone of the economy in high-income countries, but is less developed in low-income countries. SMEs include a wide range of businesses, which differ in their dynamism, technical advancement and risk attitude. Many are relatively stable in their technology, market and scale, while others are more technically advanced, filling crucial product or service niches. Increased SME growth has a direct effect on GDP growth due to increased output, value add and profits. The GDP contribution per SME is the difference between the return on capital and the cost of capital. In an era of globalizing economies many markets become increasingly international and competitive, although the story is different for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) than it is for multinational corporations (MNCs). The situation in the local market place for travel agencies in Copenhagen, Denmark, is no different, even though services are not the same as tangible products. In the context of globalization, the tourism industry, like many other industries, tends to consolidate and the question of how SMEs manage the competition is intriguing. Besides larger competitors with visible, physical premises, other processes related to globalization are presenting SMEs with both opportunities and threats. In any case, the long term viability of SMEs in the local tourism industry is at stake and this study covers, among others, what strategies are deployed by SMEs to remain profitable and competitive. There has been a growing focus on innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in tourism industry. Innovation has been playing an increasing role in hospitality industry, and is especially important for the SMEs as well as travel agencies. However, innovation research has been applied to SMEs in hospitality industry on a limited extent. This article discusses various definitions of innovation and innovation approaches in the context of SMEs in tourism industry. The objective of the article is to reveals innovation activities of the travel agencies as one of the SMEs in tourism industry. In addition, the article aims to reveal the relationship between innovation and the operating age of travel agency, and total personnel number of travel agency. However, the internet also presents travel agencies with new opportunities that can be utilized to develop new strategies. Information technology (IT) in general has influenced the rules of the game in the tourism industry, like it does in many other industries. Doubtless, a major strength for many small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is their close customer contact and their ability to maintain close customer relationships. Nevertheless, in the light of today’s business environment all SMEs have to take a closer look at their situation, even if they want to go on with their local strategy and if business outside their traditional region has no strategic logic. The role SMEs play in today’s global economies is a highly interesting matter. Initially, it was assumed SMEs would play a minor role in the rapid globalizing world economy. Multinational corporations (MNCs) would be the drivers of globalization and together with consumers they would reap the benefits. At least, this was the story as depicted in the popular press and by scholars. Surely, MNCs have the capacity and funds to invest abroad, enter new markets, and are able to better hedge themselves against the (financial) risks. Consumers, on the other hand, have benefited from lower prices of consumer goods, increased transparency, and the possibility to travel more cheaply and easily to faraway destinations. The impact of globalization differs from industry to industry. The aim of this article is to research the impact of globalization on SMEs in the tourism industry. Globalization and global tourism can be seen as two interconnected elements. This research covers the global tourism industry and takes a particular interest in local travel agencies. It is interesting as many industries in tourism are related to services and, traditionally, the services sector is the least globalized industry, because of strong local forces. That has everything to do with personal services, which is a dominating aspect in the local tourism industry. The framework will work as a Business to Business (B2B) connector between enterprises, in particular SMEs. It will cover all branches of the tourism industry (hotels, travel agencies, restaurants, etc.) and will be calculable, modular and developed as open source. It will enable undertakings to exchange data and share processes with each other through a set of specifications that allow interaction between the different systems. Traditional travel agencies will be able to gain access by adapting their systems, via private web interface (for example via an external website), or using Centralized Reservation System (CRS), while online agencies will be able to access automatically using standard communication formats (XML-based) by integrating with the system. Hotels and other tourism service providers will be able to connect through their Property Management System (PMS) using standard communication formats (XML-based) or the application provided .
Tourism is one of the pillar industries in India; they have accumulated a set of more perfect and mature management system in travel agency and operation mechanism. The current development of India’s travel industry still has a lot of room for improvement. Referencing and learning travel agency industry management experience of India will promote our tourism industry management process. The study focuses on the difference of the India’s tourism management system and their respective advantages of management. Then it puts forward corresponding suggestions according to the present situation of the development of travel industry of the India, and provides reference for the travel industry management and the organization system innovation. Regarded as an economic and social activity, tourism represents, through its content and role, a distinct field of activity, a highly important component of the economic and social life in a growing number of countries, and implicitly in our own country. Tourism is a specific phenomenon in modern civilization and it is deeply rooted in the life of the society and, as such, it has influenced its evolution. Thus, being responsive to the dynamic changes in contemporary civilization, tourism evolves under their impact, joining the general process of development. Tourism also acts as a stimulating factor for the progress and evolution given the vast human and material potential engaged in its development and given the beneficial effects on the area of interference. The tourism and hospitality industry is currently one of the most important industries worldwide. India takes full advantage of highly favorable and more than adequate conditions for the development of different forms of tourism. This context encompasses the efforts of specialists to rigorously and scientifically define the categorize system integrated to tourism, its inter-dependencies with other parts of the economy and to quantify its effects. In many developing countries, tourism is widely accepted as a way to contribute to economic development, job opportunities and foreign revenues. Due to these factors tourism worldwide has developed rapidly in the last decades. The advantages of tourism and the live examples from different parts of the world encourage countries with adequate resources to find out the ways of conducting efforts aiming sustainability in this area because sustainability can be easily connected to almost all kinds and scales of tourism activities and environments. On the other hand, tourism in developing countries is also considered as a growing environmental concern because of its affect on seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning. The travel agencies are defined as a firm qualified to arrange for travel-related retail services on behalf of various tourism industry principals. With the evolution of the internet, the use of on-line search facilities for travel information has provided additional sources of information and opportunities to purchase travel direct from suppliers such as airlines and accommodation providers without recourse to travel agents and in some instances at discounts to prices available through travel agencies by eliminating commissions for such agents . Furthermore, the capacity of the internet to promote and provide information conveniently and quickly has offered alternatives to physical visits by consumers to travel agencies in order to access such information. Friends and relatives were regarded as an important source of information in the selection of travel agencies. Travelers suggested that they interact regularly and continuously with friends and relatives, who might have significant influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, pressures for conformity might exist that affect the actual travel agency choices. As such, travel agencies should be aware of this social factor and acknowledge the fact that it could determine how consumers were to select their travel agencies.
*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. All image credit goes to bq-magazine. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.
Tourism has traditionally acted as major source of income within many developing countries. The huge amounts of investment put into this sector points to the important role it plays in the growth of the economy ad the development of economic potential. The economic stability of a country plays a great role in the development of other sectors within that country. A stable and highly performing economic climate encourages investment in various sectors and consequently there is more economic growth. As tourism planning, marketing, and product development become increasingly complex in the tourism industry in India, tourism-related research becomes a critical function in providing needed information for decision-making. As tourism becomes an increasingly important sector of the world economy, tourism related research can be expected to expand in both magnitude and scope as a critical supporting function for tourism industry. In the case of India, the rapid international and domestic tourism growth not only brought prosperity to this country, but also caused many serious social, cultural, and environmental problems.
As planning, marketing, and product development become increasingly complex in the tourism industry, research becomes a critical function in providing needed information for decision-making ideas. however, an empirical analysis on the content of the articles appearing in major hospitality and tourism journals has not been conducted. It seems appropriate at this juncture to take stock of current research efforts on tourism in India, to determine where we are now, how far we have progressed, and where we need to go in the future. Along with the rapid growth of the national economy, India’s domestic tourism boomed and became a major consumption area in social demand. This showed that tourism had become a major part in the service industry. Meanwhile, India is also experiencing stunning growth in outbound travel. The World Travel & Tourism Council calculated that tourism generated 6.4 trillion or 6.6% of the nation’s GDP in 2012. It supported 39.5 million jobs, 7.7% of its total employment. The sector is predicted to grow at an average annual rate of 7.9% till 2023 making India the third fastest growing tourism destination over the next decade. India has a large medical tourism sector which is expected to grow at an estimated rate of 30% annually to reach about 95 billion by 2015. Despite the great progress and good prospect in tourism development, there are many challenges from both home and abroad. Governments, as prime developer of tourism infrastructure, need facts for enlightened policies and action. National and local governments involved in parks, recreation areas, and historical sites need findings related to tourists who view and use these as attractions. Commercial enterprise needs the results from studies of traveler trends as well as factors contributing to better business success.
India as a country that offers stable and safe conditions for entrepreneurship and investments, is attractive for tourists and rich in historical-cultural and natural resources has the potential to offer various competitive tourism products and high quality services to the global tourism market. However, India can and must provide various and high-quality products and services tailored to the needs of more demanding consumers alongside with ‘classic tours’. This development will require a better trained and qualified workforce, more significant investments, higher quality facilities and services, use of more modern research methods and technologies and a more business-friendly environment. In Order to address the issues in the tourism industry, the primary objective is to define and develop priority tourism products and centers, develop India’s value proposition and define its product and service offerings; prioritize target markets and continuously study their growth tendencies; develop destination branding for India as a country that offers stable and safe conditions for entrepreneurship and investments and is attractive for tourists supported by its effective presentation and promotion in the global market; improve accessibility, transportation, and infrastructure through targeted investments and legal framework improvement provide higher quality and greater number of accommodation and other infrastructures, sustained investments in research and workforce development, while continuously tracking the effects and monitoring impacts of tourism development.
Tourism is one of the top five export categories for many countries and is a main source of foreign exchange earnings for 38% of them. Tourism has a strong multiplier effect serving as a major source of economic development in developing countries. The rapid expansion of international tourism has led to significant employment creation. Tourism can generate jobs directly through hotels, restaurants, leisure establishments, transportation infrastructures and souvenir sales, and indirectly through tourism-related businesses (food and other products, services, trade). The worldwide tourism industry employs around 231 million people or approximately 8.3% of the world’s workers. Tourism can add to the development of communities in many ways. Events or festivities organized by local residents for tourists, as well as their hospitality contribute to the social vitality of the community and jobs created by tourism as well as incomes generated from them can act as a vital incentive to reduce emigration from rural areas.
As tourism supports the development of community facilities and services, it can bring higher living standards to rural areas. Benefits can include upgraded transport and communication infrastructure, improved healthcare and transportation, new sport and recreational facilities, restaurants, and public spaces. Tourism helps raise the awareness of community population of the value of natural and cultural sites and can stimulate a feeling of pride in local and national heritage and interest in its conservation. Tourism generated incomes may be directed to the environmental protection. Tourism can significantly contribute to environmental protection, conservation and restoration of biological diversity and sustainable use of natural resources. The world’s travel and tourism (T&T) industry has grown by an average 4.6% per year during the past ten years.
There is a demand for higher standards of service and destinations that offer more of an experience/adventure rather than a vacation in the global market today. Increased preference for independent, tailored, and small group travel compared to mass tourism packages. Increased demand for MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences, exhibitions) travel. Increasing concern for climate change, and growth in environmental and social responsibility tourism services. More competitive global tourism business climate, contributing to destination branding/image building. Increasing destination focus on image and reputation; without a well-defined, attractive image, destinations will have trouble in the process of tourism development. Increasing application of information technologies in marketing strategies, growing private and public sector investment in marketing via Internet and other types electronic means and in research techniques.
India currently lacks the necessary infrastructure to cater for more and higher value tourists. To ensure sustainable tourism growth and quality improvement in terms of Indian tourism offerings industry related infrastructure needs to be established and developed (motor highways of interstate importance, roads to tourism attractions, tourism routes, rest stops with sanitation facilities, affordable hotel establishments, high-level hotels, establishment and development guesthouses and its integration into corresponding global networks, establishment and development of tourism clusters). Clear standards and state control should be defined over the establishment of infrastructure in tourism areas to exclude sources of pollution with chemical and biological materials and physical impulses.
Every year, millions of people travel to other countries for vacations, recreation and pleasure spending billions of dollars. India, unfortunately, gets a minuscule fraction of this burgeoning global business. However, India has a thriving indigenous tourism trade. Large numbers of Indians crisscross the country in holiday seasons for pilgrimage, sight-seeing, recreation, healthcare etc. Their numbers keep swelling year by year as the average income of the Indian middle class rises. Notwithstanding the gains, the tourist trade has some very vocal critics. It will be wise to hear them out as we take steps to welcome more tourists. Globally, tourism it brings multiple benefits to the economy.
For a country like India that needs foreign exchange and new job creation, tourism can deliver the desired benefits. One visible benefit is this sector’s ability to create jobs rapidly. New jobs are created in hotels, restaurants, travel businesses, taxis plying, entertainment centers, resorts, and many other places catering to both inland and overseas tourists. Tourism is travel for leisure, recreational and business purpose. Tourists can be defined as people who travel to and stay in places outside their usual surroundings for more than twenty-four hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes by the World Tourism Organization. Tourism is a known affair in human life. It has been an industry of vast dimensions and eventually supports economic and social growth. Tourism worldwide has experienced phenomenal growth. With more than 600 million people travelling annually, tourism is the world’s largest industry, with revenues of about half a trillion dollars a year, and averaging five percent annual growth.
India’s niche is built around Cultural, Heritage and Adventure Tourism with its diverse topography and geopolitical heritage. While these core areas continue to drive tourism there have been efforts to create niche tourism products like Medical and Wellness, Rural Tourism, Eco-tourism, Wildlife Tourism, etc. in the last decade. Niche tourism is fast becoming a reality in India. “In my opinion, these are the businesses of the future and many of them will be key to the growth of India’s tourism. Key niche tourism areas are Wellness, Medical, Cruises, Pilgrimage, Adventure, MICE, Golf and Polo. Both the trade and the government are cooperating to realize the potential of these sectors. Essentially, niche is where money is which the industry also realizes. “Many of the new segments are high-end and India offers a perfect setting to grow and nurture them to be good value businesses. We are already seeing double digit growth in Wellness and Medical Tourism, and noticing their value, key tour operators and destination management companies are incubating specialist teams.
This will gradually become a trend setter. It has much to offer to travelers and tourists. It is a land of hills, rivers, plateaus, plains, beaches, deltas and deserts. It also houses many luxurious hotels and resorts to cater to its booming travel and tourism industry. India offers luxury travel to its travelers and tourists. Cruise from the picturesque natural sites to the architectural wealth in this beautiful land. Almost all the cities in India have something to interest tourists.
There are 29 states in India, Following are:
|No. State Capital Chief Minister|
|1 Andhra Pradesh Hyderabad Nara Chandrababu Naidu|
|2 Arunachal Pradesh Itanagar Nabam Tuki|
|3 Assam Dispur Tarun Gogoi|
|4 Bihar Patna Nitish Kumar|
|5 Chhattisgarh Raipur Dr. Raman Singh|
|6 Goa Panaji Laxmikant Parsekar|
|7 Gujarat Gandhinagar Ms. Anandiben Patel|
|8 Haryana Chandigarh Manohar Lal Khattar|
|9 Himachal Pradesh Shimla Virbhadra Singh|
|10 Jammu and Kashmir Srinagar Mufti Mohammad Sayeed|
|11 Jharkhand Ranchi Raghubar Das|
|12 Karnataka Bengaluru Siddaramaiah|
|13 Kerala Thiruvananthapuram Oommen Chandy|
|14 Madhya Pradesh Bhopal Shivraj Singh Chouhan|
|15 Maharashtra Mumbai Devendra Fadnavis|
|16 Manipur Imphal Okram Ibobi Singh|
|17 Meghalaya Shillong Dr. Mukul Sangma|
|18 Mizoram Aizawl Pu Lal Thanhawla|
|19 Nagaland Kohima T. R. Zeliang|
|20 Orissa Bhubaneswar Naveen Patnaik|
|21 Punjab Chandigarh Parkash Singh Badal|
|22 Rajasthan Jaipur Ms. Vasundhara Raje|
|23 Sikkim Gangtok Pawan Chamling|
|24 Tamil Nadu Chennai Ms. J. Jayalalithaa|
|25 Telangana Hyderabad K. Chandrasekhara Rao|
|26 Tripura Agartala Manik Sarkar|
|27 Uttar Pradesh Lucknow Akhilesh Yadav|
|28 Uttarakhand Dehradun Harish Rawat|
|29 West Bengal Kolkata Ms. Mamata Banerjee|
*I’m not a guru, nor do I have any kind of a black lore or accomplishment. Were all written in my article entitled have been expressed only through education purpose. Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. There is no coordination with anyone, If only he would be considered a coincidence.