Category: travel to india

A melodic language, which originated in India, but today is on the verge of disappearing.

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Sanskrit was a complete success and became the language of all cultured people in India and in countries under Indian influence. All scientific, philosophical, historical works were henceforth written in Sanskrit, and important texts existing in other languages were translated and adapted into Sanskrit. For this reason, very few ancient literary, religious, or philosophical documents exits in India in other languages. The sheer volume of Sanskrit literature is immense, and it remains largely unexplored. Sanskrit is one of the official languages of India and is popularly known as a classical language of the country. It is considered as the mother of all languages.It belongs to the Indic group of language family of Indo-European and its descendents which are Indo-Iranian & Indo Aryan. The meaning of Sanskrit is refined, decorated or produced in perfect form. The language is also known for its clarity and beauty. It is also a language…

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When more and more people are thrown out of work, unemployment results.

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Youth unemployment – a ticking time bomb, or is it already here?

Unemployment is defined as a situation where someone of working age is not able to get a job but would like to be in full time employment. Unemployment represents the number of people in the work force who want to work but do not have a job. It is generally stated as a percentage and calculated by dividing the number of people who are unemployed by the total work force. The terms unemployment and unemployed are sometimes used to refer to other inputs to production that are not being fully used, for example, unemployed capital goods. In economics, unemployment refers to the condition and extent of joblessness within an economy, and is measured in terms of the unemployment rate, which is the number of unemployed workers divided by the total civilian labor force.

Highly educated less likely to…

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Black Friday “Bloody pages of Indian history” – what exactly happened on March 12,1993

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‘The purpose of this Article is to provide a platform for exchange of views.Please Register with Blog to post a comment and avoid abuse and getting into personal arguments”.

On March 12, 1993, a series of bomb explosions ruptured the arteries of Mumbai and brought the city to its knees, which resulted in death of 257 persons, injuries of various types to 713 persons and destruction of properties worth more than Rupees 27 crores.The explosions were caused at vital Govt. installations, public premises and crowded places with intention to overawe the Government established by law and to cause terror among public at large. The first car bomb exploded in the basement of the 28-storey Bombay Stock Exchange building at 1.30 pm, killing 50 on the spot.  The 13 bombs which exploded in quick succession brought the city’s most iconic buildings to their knees, beginning with the symbol of its financial…

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What happened was that the tribal guerrillas have become Naxalite?

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‘The purpose of this Article is to provide a platform for exchange of views.Please Register with Blog to post a comment and avoid abuse and getting into personal arguments”.

A Naxal or Naxalites is a member of any of the Communist guerrilla groups in India (Maoist). The Maoist rebellion in India is 40 years old. It started in 1967 in the town of Naxalbari in West Bengal, because of which the guerrilla group is also known as Naxalites. The name Naxalite is derived from the town of Naxalbari (Naksalbari) in far northern West Bengal state in northeastern India, which was the center of a tribal peasant uprising against local landlords in 1967. Although the rebellion was suppressed, it became the focus of a number of communist-led separatist movements that sprung up in remote, often tribal areas in India—at first primarily in northeastern India but later more widely in other parts of…

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Come to Life. Come to Worlds Leading Airlines

The world’s largest democracy India, officially called the Republic of India. Indian Aviation Industry is one of the fastest growing airline industries in the world. At the end of 2013 there are 75,322,747 foreigner tourists arrived India through Air. Indian Aviation Industry started in December 1912 with its first domestic air route between Karachi and Delhi. The flight was operated by Tata sons; Indian Airlines in collaboration with the UK based Imperial Airways as an extension of London-Karachi flight of the Imperial Airways. Here I am Filing a Report of Leading Airlines of the World by 2015 as below:

Aeroflot is primary national carrier and largest airline of Russia’s. This is founded by the Russian Government on February 9, 1923; Aeroflot was the first Russian airline company to join the International Air Transport Association (IATA) in 1989. Today, Aeroflot is an airline with an excellent safety record, operational reliability and a reputation for industry-leading customer service. Through its hub at Sheremetyevo Airport in Moscow, Aeroflot operates flights to over 120 destinations in more than 50 countries under its current schedule. Aeroflot’s fleet, which is one of the most modern, youngest and fastest-growing aircraft fleets in Europe, consists of more than 120 planes, with its backbone formed by modern Airbus A320 Family, A330 and Boeing B767 airliners. Aeroflot celebrate their 90th Anniversary last year, on that day they launched a Brand new Airbus A320. The aircraft has been named “P. Yablochkov” after the famous Russian electrical engineer Pavel Nikolayevich Yablochkov.

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Cathay Pacific is the flag carrier of Hong Kong, with its head office and main hub located at Hong Kong International Airport. It operates an extensive network of international passenger and cargo air services in conjunction with its subsidiary Dragonair, which operates as a regional branch of the airline serving cities across Asia. Dragonair became a wholly owned subsidiary of Cathay Pacific in Sep-2006. A founding member of the oneworld alliance, it is listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange (SEHK: 0293). Its largest shareholder is Swire Pacific, a member of the Swire Group. CX Voted Airline of the Year 2014, Cathay Pacific Airways has won the ‘World’s Best Airline’ award for the fourth time, more than any other airline. Cathay Pacific is a member of the oneworld global airline alliance. The Cathay Pacific Group, including Dragonair and Air Hong Kong, operate more than 150 aircraft to 130 destinations across the globe.

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In a short time, Qatar Airways has grown to more than 140 destinations worldwide, offering the levels of service excellence that helped the award-winning carrier to become best in the world. Qatar Airways network spans business and leisure destinations across Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific, North America and South America. Qatar Airways is a member of oneworld global airline alliance. Qatar Airways was named the World’s Leading Airline 2012 in the World Airline Awards, which took place at Farnborough International Airshow, and was attended by top management from airlines across the globe. Winning countless awards inclusive of Airline of the Year 2012 by Skytrax, it is no surprise that the name is on our list, but with the introduction of the new business class seats across the fleet or the improvement of the current seats would boost the airline to the top of the airlines.

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Singapore Airlines is one of the most respected travel brands around the world. Flying one of the youngest aircraft fleets in the world to destinations spanning a network spread over six continents; Based at Singapore Changi Airport, Singapore Airlines is the national carrier of Singapore. Using a fleet of wide-body Boeing and Airbus aircraft. Singapore Airlines operates an extensive network across Asia, North America, Australasia, Europe, Africa and the Middle East. Singapore Airlines joined the Star Alliance on 01-Apr-2000. Singapore Airlines have A380-800, B777-300ER, B777-200ER, B777-300, B777-200 and A330-300.

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The Emirates Group is an international travel and tourism holding company based in Dubai, UAE. It is the parent company of Emirates Airline, which operates an extensive network of international air passenger and cargo services worldwide. Originally Emirates Group founded in 1985, and flying out of Dubai with just two aircraft, Emirates now has a fleet of more than 230 aircraft, and currently fly to over 140 destinations in more than 80 countries around the world. The Emirates network is expanding constantly, with over 1,500 flights departing Dubai each week on their way to destinations on six continents.

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Japanese carrier, ANA All Nippon Airways is the 13th largest airline in the world by revenues. Founded in 1952, Tokyo-based All Nippon Airways (ANA) is a major Japanese airline with hubs at Tokyo/Narita, Tokyo/Haneda, Kansai and Osaka airports. ANA flies on 72 international routes and 115 domestic routes with a fleet of about 240 aircraft. ANA was the launch customer and biggest operator of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, across Europe, South Asia, East Asia and North America.

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Originally founded in 1933, Turkish Airlines is the flag carrier of Turkey. It operates an extensive network of domestic and international passenger and cargo services alongside its subsidiary and affiliate airlines. A member of the star alliance, Turkish Airlines Group is headquartered on the grounds of Ataturk International Airport .The Turkish Government retains a shareholding of 49.12% in the airline group. Turkish Airlines flies to more countries in the world than any other airline (105 countries over five continents). Turkish Airlines now has a fleet of 261 aircraft (passenger and cargo) flying to 243 cities around the world. 

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Asiana Airlines Inc. is one of South Korea’s two major airlines, along with Korean Air. Asiana has its headquarters in Asiana Town building in Seoul. Asiana Airlines began operations in 1988. Based at Incheon International Airport in South Korea, and a member of Star Alliance, the airline carried over 17 million passengers in 2014. Asiana Airlines operates flights worldwide serving 24 countries with a fleet of 84 aircraft. Majority-owned by one of South Korea’s largest conglomerates, the Kumho Asiana Group, Asiana is the second-largest airline in South Korea and an increasingly important player in the East Asian region. 

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Etihad Airways is one of two flag carrier airlines of the United Arab Emirates along with Emirates Airlines. Its head office is in Khalifa City A, near Abu Dhabi City. Etihad established in 2003. Etihad Airways fleet as at 30 September 2014 comprised 105 passenger and cargo aircraft, with the A380 and Boeing 787 due to arrive early 2015. Etihad‘s newest incarnation of their Pearl Business Class seat may have been around for a couple of years now, but it’s still effortlessly beautiful. Wonderful privacy and clean modern lines really make the airline a contemporary business class that the worldly traveler will have come to expect in this day and age.

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Deutsche Lufthansa AG, commonly known as Lufthansa, is the flag carrier of Germany and also the largest airline in Europe, both in terms of overall passengers carried and fleet size when combined with its subsidiaries .The largest airline in Europe, Lufthansa operates to 197 international destinations in 78 countries across Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe, with a fleet of over 280 aircraft. Lufthansa has Airbus A319-100, Airbus A320-200, Airbus A321-200, Airbus A330-300, Airbus A340-300/600, Airbus A380-800, Boeing 737-300/500, Boeing 747-400, , Bombardier CRJ700/900, Bombardier DH8 Q400, ATR 72-500, Avro RJ85, Embraer ERJ-190/195 

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Since its establishment in 1945 with a single twin-engine DC-3 (Dakota) HZ-AAX, Saudia has grown to provide its services to transport passengers between 26 domestic and 53 international destinations. At present, it carries more than 25 million passengers annually. During the last five years, Saudia has been undergoing a series of development activities on the basis of a strategic development plan that includes modernization of technical infrastructure in administrative, technical and financial sectors. Saudia continues efforts to modernize its fleet by acquiring 90 new aircraft including 35 Airbus A320s, 15 A321s, 12 A330s, 20 Boeing 777s and eight Boeing Dream liners. 

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Korean Air, with a fleet of 147 modern aircraft, is one of the world’s top 20 airlines and operates more than 400 flights per day to 121 destinations in 41 countries. Since its privatization in 1969, Korean Air has expanded its operations in terms of both quality and quantity. Its advanced management system and innovative customer satisfaction policies have enabled the airline to achieve remarkable results. Korean Air is the largest Asian airline in the Americas, flying from more cities in the Americas to more cities in Asia than any other airline. Korean Air is also the world’s most successful in-flight retailer. According to the statistics released by the International Air Transport Association, Korean Air has also been among the world’s largest commercial airline cargo operator since 2004.

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KLM Royal Dutch Airlines was founded in 1919, making it the world’s oldest airline operating under its original name. In 2004 Air France and KLM merged to form AIR FRANCE KLM. The merger produced the strongest European airline group based on two powerful brand names and hubs – Amsterdam Airport Schiphol and Paris-Charles de Gaulle. KLM is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands. KLM’s headquarters is in Amstelveen near its hub at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. KLM participates in the industry’s leading trans-Atlantic joint venture with Air France, Delta Air Lines and Alitalia. With approximately 250 daily trans-Atlantic flights and a fleet of around 150 aircraft, the joint venture between AIR FRANCE-KLM, Alitalia and Delta Air Lines provides customers with the benefits of a vast route network offering more frequent flights, competitive fares and harmonized services on all trans-Atlantic flights.

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Garuda Indonesia is the flag carrier of Indonesia. Named after the holy bird Garuda of Hinduism and Buddhism, the airline is headquartered at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, near Jakarta. Seamlessly connects more than 60 destinations worldwide to not only one of the largest economies in Southeast Asia, but also a plethora of exotic locations in the beautiful archipelago of Indonesia all at once. With approximately 500 daily flights and a fleet of around 130 aircraft, Garuda Indonesia proudly serves our passengers with the award-winning “Garuda Indonesia Experience” service, which highlights Indonesia’s warm hospitality and rich diverse culture.

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Delta a major American airline, with its headquarters and largest hub at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia .Delta Air Lines serves more than 160 million customers each year. With an industry-leading global network, Delta and the Delta Connection carriers offer services to nearly 350 destinations in 65 countries on six continents. Headquartered in Atlanta, operates a mainline fleet of more than 700 aircraft. Delta offers customers daily flights, with hubs in Amsterdam, Atlanta, Cincinnati, Detroit, Memphis, Minneapolis-St. Paul, New York-LaGuardia, New York-JFK, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Salt Lake City and Tokyo-Narita. The Delta SkyMiles program is convenient for frequent fliers based in central and southern U.S. cities like Atlanta, Cincinnati, Detroit, Memphis, Minneapolis and Salt Lake City, as well as passengers who often travel to and from New York City. Delta Air Lines operates more than 5,400 flights each day to 333 destinations across 64 countries. By becoming a SkyMiles member, you’ll earn one reward mile for every mile you fly with Delta, Delta Connection or Delta Shuttle; you can also earn miles for flying with any of Delta’s 25 partner airlines, including KLM, Air France and Virgin Atlantic. Those miles can be redeemed for free air travel on any participating airline, or you can cash in rewards for cabin upgrades or items for sale at the SkyMiles Marketplace.

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Czech Airlines, as the flag carrier airline of the Czech Republic, provides connections from Prague, to major destinations in Europe, Central Asia, the Transcaucasia and the Middle East. Czech Airlines is one of the oldest airlines in Europe. During the years of its operation it has become a modern airline, priding itself on a number of awards for quality of their services. Other subsidiaries of Czech Aero holding are Prague Airport – the operator of the international airport Prague/Ruzyne, air carrier and travel agency HOLIDAYS Czech Airlines, Czech Airlines Techniques providing services in technical maintenance of aircrafts, Czech Airlines Handling providing passenger and aircraft handling and CSA Services providing primarily personnel services. 

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AIRFRANCE is the flag carrier of French, headquartered in Tremblay-en-France. Air France operates 1,500 daily flights in France, Europe and worldwide. Since 2004, Air France and KLM have formed one of the leading European air transport groups. The two airlines currently offer their customers access to a network covering 230 destinations in 113 countries from their hubs at Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Amsterdam-Schiphol. Air France and KLM and their partners Delta and Alitalia operate the biggest trans-Atlantic joint-venture with more than 250 daily flights.

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American Airlines began in 1929, when The Aviation Corporation was formed to acquire young aviation companies, including Robertson. In 1930, The Aviation Corporation’s airline subsidiaries were incorporated into American Airways, Inc. In 1934, American Airways became American Airlines, Inc. American Airlines began trading on the New York Stock Exchange on June 10, 1939.In 1942, American entered the airline catering business with a subsidiary called Sky Chefs, providing food service to its passengers as well as to other airlines. At the end of 1959 and into the early 1960s, American, teaming up with IBM, introduced and implemented SABRE (Semi-Automated Business Research Environment), the largest electronic data processing system for business use. By 1964, the SABRE network extended from coast to coast and from Canada to Mexico. It became the largest real-time data processing system, second only to the U.S. government’s SAGE system. Apart from over 600 aircraft in service, American Airlines has more than450 aircraft from Airbus and Boeing on order, replacing its aging MD-80 series, 757-200 and 767-200 jets. As of June 2014, the last 767-200aircraft was retired and replaced by the new A321. There is one thing AA have got right, and that is their new cabin offerings. American has now moved on from its painful slide-down-into-a-heap-at-the-end-of-the-flight seats and offers fully flat, cocoon seats that offer privacy and comfort more than ever before. These seats have a hint of BA’s First Class offering but obviously at a fraction of the cost.

Project Covered By: Vikas Acharya

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The great English Dramatist and Poet – William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare was probably born on about April 23, 1564, the date that is traditionally given for his birth. He was John and Mary Shakespeare’s oldest surviving child; their first two children, both girls, did not live beyond infancy. Growing up as the big brother of the family, William had three younger brothers, Gilbert, Richard, and Edmund, and two younger sisters: Anne, who died at seven, and Joan. Shakespeare, as the son of a leading Stratford citizen, almost certainly attended Stratford’s grammar school. Like all such schools, its curriculum consisted of an intense emphasis on the Latin classics, including memorization, writing, and acting classic Latin plays. Shakespeare most likely attended until about age 15.A few years after he left school, in late 1582, William Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway. She was already expecting their first-born child, Susanna, which was a fairly common situation at the time. When they married, Anne was 26 and William was 18. Anne grew up just outside Stratford in the village of Shottery. After marrying, she spent the rest of her life in Stratford. For several years after Judith and Hamnet’s arrival in 1585, nothing is known for certain of Shakespeare’s activities: how he earned a living, when he moved from Stratford, or how he got his start in the theater. Shakespeare was prolific, with records of his first plays beginning to appear in 1594, from which time he produced roughly two a year until around 1611. His hard work quickly paid off, with signs that he was beginning to prosper emerging soon after the publication of his first plays. By 1596 Shakespeares father, John had been granted a coat of arms and its probable that Shakespeare had commissioned them, paying the fees himself. A year later he bought New Place, a large house in Stratford. His earlier plays were mainly histories and comedies such as ‘Henry VI’, ‘Titus Andronicus’, ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream’, ‘The Merchant of Venice’ and ‘Richard II’. The tragedy, ‘Romeo and Juliet’, was also published in this period. By the last years of Elizabeth I’s reign Shakespeare was well established as a famous poet and playwright and was called upon to perform several of his plays before the Queen at court. In 1598 the author Francis Meres described Shakespeare as England’s greatest writer in comedy and tragedy. Shakespeare prospered financially from his partnership in the Lord Chamberlain’s Men (later the King’s Men), as well as from his writing and acting. He invested much of his wealth in real-estate purchases in Stratford and bought the second-largest house in town, New Place, in 1597.Among the last plays that Shakespeare worked on was The Two Noble Kinsmen, which he wrote with a frequent collaborator, John Fletcher, most likely in 1613. Shakespeare spent the last five years of his life in New Place in Stratford. He died on 23 April 1616 at the age of 52 and was buried in Holy Trinity Church in Stratford. He left his property to the male heirs of his eldest daughter, Susanna. He also bequeathed his ‘second-best bed’ to his wife. It is not known what significance this gesture had, although the couple had lived primarily apart for 20 years of their marriage.


The Role Of Sme-S On Tourism Marketing , why major contributor to travel and tourism sector in India?

The development community has long upheld that a thriving private sector is essential for economic development. SMEs play an instrumental, but often under-recognized, role in private sector growth. SMEs are a fundamental part of the economic fabric in developing countries, and they play a crucial role in furthering growth, innovation and prosperity. Unfortunately, they are strongly restricted in accessing the capital that they require to grow and expand, with nearly half of SMEs in developing countries rating access to finance as a major constraint. The SME sector is the backbone of the economy in high-income countries, but is less developed in low-income countries. SMEs include a wide range of businesses, which differ in their dynamism, technical advancement and risk attitude. Many are relatively stable in their technology, market and scale, while others are more technically advanced, filling crucial product or service niches. Increased SME growth has a direct effect on GDP growth due to increased output, value add and profits. The GDP contribution per SME is the difference between the return on capital and the cost of capital. In an era of globalizing economies many markets become increasingly international and competitive, although the story is different for small and  medium sized enterprises (SMEs) than it is for multinational corporations  (MNCs). The situation in the local market place for travel agencies in Copenhagen, Denmark, is no different, even though services are not the same as tangible products. In the context of globalization, the tourism industry, like many other industries, tends to consolidate and the question of how SMEs manage the competition is intriguing. Besides larger competitors with visible, physical premises, other processes related to globalization are presenting SMEs with both opportunities and threats. In any case, the long term viability of SMEs in the local tourism industry is at stake and this study covers, among others, what strategies are deployed by SMEs to remain profitable and competitive. There has been a growing focus on innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in tourism industry. Innovation has been playing an increasing role in hospitality industry, and is especially important for the SMEs as well as travel agencies. However, innovation research has been applied to SMEs in hospitality industry on a limited extent. This article discusses various definitions of innovation and innovation approaches in the context of SMEs in tourism industry. The objective of the article is to reveals innovation activities of the travel agencies as one of the SMEs in tourism industry. In addition, the article aims to reveal the relationship between innovation and the operating age of travel agency, and total personnel number of travel agency. However, the internet also presents travel agencies with new opportunities that can be utilized to develop new strategies. Information technology (IT) in general has influenced the rules of the game in the tourism industry, like it does in many other industries. Doubtless, a major strength for many small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is their close customer contact and their ability to maintain close customer relationships. Nevertheless, in the light of today’s business environment all SMEs have to take a closer look at their situation, even if they want to go on with their local strategy and if business outside their traditional region has no strategic logic. The role SMEs play in today’s global economies is a highly interesting matter. Initially, it was assumed SMEs would play a minor role in the rapid globalizing world economy. Multinational corporations (MNCs) would be the drivers of globalization and together with consumers they would reap the benefits. At least, this was the story as depicted in the popular press and by scholars. Surely, MNCs have the capacity and funds to invest abroad, enter new markets, and are able to better hedge themselves against the (financial) risks. Consumers, on the other hand, have benefited from lower prices of consumer goods, increased transparency, and the possibility to travel more cheaply and easily to faraway destinations. The impact of globalization differs from industry to industry. The aim of this article  is to research the impact of globalization on SMEs in the tourism industry. Globalization and global tourism can be seen as two interconnected elements. This research covers the global tourism industry and takes a particular interest in local travel agencies. It is interesting as many industries in tourism are related to  services and, traditionally, the services sector is the least globalized industry, because of strong local forces. That has everything to do with personal services, which is a dominating aspect in the local tourism industry. The framework will work as a Business to Business (B2B) connector between enterprises, in particular SMEs. It will cover all branches of the tourism industry (hotels, travel agencies, restaurants, etc.) and will be calculable, modular and developed as open source. It will enable undertakings to exchange data and share processes with each other through a set of specifications that allow interaction between the different systems. Traditional travel agencies will be able to gain access by adapting their systems, via private web interface (for example via an external website), or using  Centralized Reservation System (CRS), while online agencies will be able to access automatically using standard communication formats (XML-based) by integrating with the system. Hotels and other tourism service providers will be able to connect through their Property Management System (PMS) using standard communication formats (XML-based) or the application provided .

Tourism is one of the pillar industries in India; they have accumulated a set of more perfect and mature management system in travel agency and operation mechanism. The current development of India’s travel industry still has a lot of room for improvement. Referencing and learning travel agency industry management experience of India will promote our tourism industry management process. The study focuses on the difference of the India’s tourism management system and their respective advantages of management. Then it puts forward corresponding suggestions according to the present situation of the development of travel industry of the India, and provides reference for the travel industry management and the organization system innovation. Regarded as an economic and social activity, tourism represents, through its content and role, a distinct field of activity, a highly important component of the economic and social life in a growing number of countries, and implicitly in our own country. Tourism is a specific phenomenon in modern civilization and it is deeply rooted in the life of the society and, as such, it has influenced its evolution. Thus, being responsive to the dynamic changes in contemporary civilization, tourism evolves under their impact, joining the general process of development. Tourism also acts as a stimulating factor for the progress and evolution given the vast human and material potential engaged in its development and given the beneficial effects on the area of interference. The tourism and hospitality industry is currently one of the most important industries worldwide. India takes full advantage of highly favorable and more than adequate conditions for the development of different forms of tourism. This context encompasses the efforts of specialists to rigorously and scientifically define the categorize system integrated to tourism, its inter-dependencies with other parts of the economy and to quantify its effects. In many developing countries, tourism is widely accepted as a way to contribute to economic development, job opportunities and foreign revenues. Due to these factors tourism worldwide has developed rapidly in the last decades. The advantages of tourism and the live examples from different parts of the world encourage countries with adequate resources to find out the ways of conducting efforts aiming sustainability in this area because sustainability can be easily connected to almost all kinds and scales of tourism activities and environments. On the other hand, tourism in developing countries is also considered as a growing environmental concern because of its affect on seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning. The travel agencies are defined as a firm qualified to arrange for travel-related retail services on behalf of various tourism industry principals. With the evolution of the internet, the use of on-line search facilities for travel information has provided additional sources of information and opportunities to purchase travel direct from suppliers such as airlines and accommodation providers without recourse to travel agents and in some instances at discounts to prices available through travel agencies by eliminating commissions for such agents . Furthermore, the capacity of the internet to promote and provide information conveniently and quickly has offered alternatives to physical visits by consumers to travel agencies in order to access such information. Friends and relatives were regarded as an important source of information in the selection of travel agencies. Travelers suggested that they interact regularly and continuously with friends and relatives, who might have significant influence on their attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, pressures for conformity might exist that affect the actual travel agency choices. As such, travel agencies should be aware of this social factor and acknowledge the fact that it could determine how consumers were to select their travel agencies.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. All image credit goes to bq-magazine. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

The World’s Most Beautiful National Parks

National Parks were designated in order to protect beautiful areas for the nation.

Northumberland national park, England- National Parks were designated in order to protect beautiful areas for the nation. Northumberland National Park is situated to the west of the county of Northumberland, sandwiched between Scotland to the North, the North Sea to the east, Hadrian’s Wall to the South and Cumbria to the West, there are around 405 square miles of superb wilderness within the National Park to explore.The most northerly of the National Parks in England, Northumberland National Park is also the least visited and the least populated, although that is due more to its location than to any lack of interesting reasons for visiting. The southern border of the park is marked by Hadrian’s Wall, and some of the finest Roman sites in Britain lie within the park’s borders.This “land of the far horizons” is a scenic gem at the top of England, anchored by the Cheviot Hills and undulating southward in swaths of open moorland and grasslands, dotted with traditional villages and cut by picturesque valleys.Northumberland is justly famed for the ancient engineering marvel of Hadrian’s Wall. The wall was constructed in the A.D. 120s to mark the frontier of the Roman Empire and separate its lands from those of the barbarians beyond. Many centuries later, most of the turf-and-stone structure still stands, stretching across the landscape of Northumberland for 73 miles (117 kilometers). It can be walked end-to-end along the Hadrian’s Wall Trail. Continuing archaeological work periodically reveals new glimpses of life in Roman Britain; some of these are on display at the Roman Army Museum in Greenhead.The Romans weren’t Northumberland’s original inhabitants. People have lived here for at least 10,000 years, since hunters roamed the landscape in the days after the end of the last ice age. Permanent villages sprang up after about 2000 B.C., and during the Iron Age, after about 300 B.C., dozens of spectacular stone and earth hill forts appeared. Today they are among the finest in all of Britain.

Pembrokeshire coast national park, wales- Pembrokeshire Coast is one of three National Parks in Wales, the other two being Brecon Beacons and Snowdonia. It is the UK’s only truly coastal National Park. For centuries the Park has been a living, working landscape where people and nature co-exist. Its spectacular patchwork of rugged cliffs, sandy beaches, wooded estuaries and wild inland hills makes it a place of sanctuary for wildlife. In 1952, this wonderful place became a national park ­– the first park in the UK to consist entirely of wild, maritime landscapes. Plans for a Pembrokeshire Coast Path were underway within a year and the path, a National Trail, formally opened in 1970. It’s been a tremendous success, proving that conservationists, walkers and landowners can get along peacefully and paving the way for even bigger and better things. The coast path has always been special, but now that it’s part of the 870-mile Wales Coast Path, it’s better than ever. Walks can be long or short, linear or circular, steep or flat, and may lead you across gleaming sands or over clifftops with views to make the heart skip. Pembrokeshire Coast also includes a scattering of offshore islands many of which, like Skomer and Skokholm Islands, were named by the Vikings who cruised this coast between the eighth and tenth centuries. Though people lived on most of these islands since prehistoric times and farmed them into the 20th century only Caldey Island is inhabited today. While water dominates the park landscape Pembrokeshire Coast is also a spectacular place for walkers to stretch their legs along dozens of Wales’ best beaches, headlands, bays, cliffs, and scenic seaside towns. The park has 621 miles (1,000 kilometers) of trails, including one-hour strolls and 186 miles (299 kilometers) of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Trail. Year-round Coastal Bus Services, designed for walkers, cover the entire route so that strollers can set their own itineraries. Summer is the busiest season on the coast, when fair weather is best for beaches and boating and the frequency of everything from festivities to transport options is a bit greater. But each season offers its own rewards and something is on in the area year-round.

Gran paradiso national park, Italy– The history of Gran Paradiso National Park is linked to the protection of the ibex. In 1856 King Vittorio Emanuele II declared these mountains a royal hunting reserve, thus saving the ibex from extinction. Its population in those days had been reduced to an alarmingly low level. The king set up a corps of specialized guards and ordered the paths and mule-tracks to be laid down, which today are still the best network path system for the protection of the fauna by the modern rangers and form the nucleus of the nature trails for tourist excursions. Gran Paradiso National Park was the first of its kind in Italy and remains one of the best known. Filled with majestic mountains and valleys, as well as a variety of vegetation and animal life, the park in the Graian Alps is certainly something to experience. The park’s lowest valley is at 800 meters above sea level while its highest peak, which belongs to Gran Paradiso Mountain, is over 4,000 meters high. If you take a trip to Gran Paradiso you will experience gorgeous alpine grasslands, glaciers and unique rock formations that won’t soon be forgotten. Gran Paradiso National Park was the first of its kind in Italy and remains one of the best known. Filled with majestic mountains and valleys, as well as a variety of vegetation and animal life, the park in the Graian Alps is certainly something to experience. The park’s lowest valley is at 800 meters above sea level while its highest peak, which belongs to Gran Paradiso Mountain, is over 4,000 meters high. If you take a trip to Gran Paradiso you will experience gorgeous alpine grasslands, glaciers and unique rock formations that won’t soon be forgotten.

Olympus national park, Greece- In 1938, Olympus, the highest Greek mountain, the residence of the twelve ancient gods, was the first area which was declared as a National Park. About 50 years ago a special regime was enforced to protect this unique part of our country. The aim was the preservation of the natural environment; of the flora, fauna and natural landscapes, as well as of its cultural and other values. Scientific research had to be supported and people had to become aware of the environmental conditions. Furthermore tourism had to be developed in the wider area. Specific laws prohibit any kind of exploitation in the east side of the mountain, about 10,000 acres, which constitutes the core of the National Park. The wider area around it was designated as “peripheral zone of the National Park” so that its management and exploitation won’t affect negatively the protection of the core. The mountain’s highest peak, Mytikas, tops out at 9,573 feet (2,918 meters). The ancients called Mytikas “Pantheon” and believed it was the meeting place of the deities. The 12 gods were believed to have lived in the alpine ravines, which Homer described as the mountain’s “mysterious folds.”The village of Dion, on the mountain’s flanks, was a Macedonian holy city where King Archelaus (414-399 B.C.) held nine days of games to honor Zeus. Today Dion houses a remarkable archaeological site, where work is ongoing, and an archaeological museum in which much of the region’s rich Classical history is on display. In the summer the Olympus Festival includes performances at the ancient theater. Olympus is a Mediterranean mountain; summers are typically warm and dry and winters are wet. High elevations are typically covered in snow for a full seven months (November to May). During any season the climate is apt to change as one climbs—for each 100 meters of ascent the average temperature typically drops by half a degree Celsius.

National parks of svalbard, Norway– Norway has 44 national parks, 37 on the mainland and seven on Svalbard. From underwater wonders to high mountainous areas, these parks offer a variety of landscapes and a wide range of exciting outdoors experiences.Svalbard is Arctic wilderness and polar bear country. The opportunity to see one of these giants draws many visitors. But polar bears can be dangerous, and close encounters may prove fatal for the bears and, occasionally, for humans. People traveling in bear country are advised to carry flares or other deterrents to scare off aggressive bears—and high-powered rifles in case such measures fail.Nordvest-Spitsbergen National Park is a glorious land of mountain peaks, glaciers, and offshore islands. It is also home to Svalbard’s main historical monuments. Whaling stations and burial grounds were established here as early as the 1600s. The ill-fated balloonist Salomon Andrée took off from Virgohamn for the North Pole in July 1897. His remains, and those of his companions, weren’t found until 1930. Visiting the remnants of his camp, and other sites on Virgohamn, requires a permit from the governor.As its Arctic Ocean location would suggest, Svalbard is a land of long, cold winters with extended periods of temperatures from -4 to -22ºF (-20 to -30ºC)—not including wind chill. Between December and May visitors can explore the islands by skis, snowmobiles, or dog sleds. Boating is possible from early June until mid-September.

Mu ko similan national park, Thailand– Established as a national park in 1982, Similan Islands are an archipelago of 11 islands in Phang Nga Province 70km off the coast at Andaman Sea, covering an area of 70sqkm. With a rich marine life consisting of magical hard/soft coral reefs, crystal clear waters and white beaches it is concidered to be one of the best diving sites in the world.”Similan Islands” is an underwater paradise teeming with life at large. The coral And among fishes. The water was crystal clear glass and has a beautiful white sand beaches. Similan is famous for its beautiful deep water, 1 in 10 of the world’s top sailing and rock as a symbol of the Similan Islands National Park. Leasing is located at the island, 8 (Similan Islands) that is very beautiful. And is a highlight of the Similan Islands. Consists of numerous islands with high and steep granite mountain, beaches and rocks formation of many shapes. The shoreline of each islands are of inconsistent curves since they are situated in the outer part of the sea and are worn away directly by waves. Part of the water lies in the Andaman Sea and eastern side of the Indian Ocean while the shoulder of the continent borders the western shoreline of Phang Nga province and Union of Myanmar, paralleling the Nikobar Islands of India. There is no mud at all along the beaches, so the sands are very clean, white and very fine. Some islands do have hills in the area, which are usually quite tall with the highest top of 244 meters above mean sea level, while some islands are of flat area surrounded by sand dunes and coral reefs.Summer begins in mid February and ends in May. Rainy season starts from mid May till October with North – Western wind. Average annual temperature is 27๐c with average of approximately 83% humidity all year round. Average annual rainfall is measured at 3,560 millimeters with evaporation rate of 1,708 millimeters per year. In rainy season, the national park will be closed during 16 May – 31 October every year for visitors safety.

Komodo national park – Komodo National Park is located in the center of the Indonesian archipelago, between the islands of Sumbawa and Flores. Established in 1980, initially the main purpose of the Park was to conserve the unique Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) and its habitat. However, over the years, the goals for the Park have expanded to protecting its entire biodiversity, both terrestrial and marine. In 1986, the Park was declared a World Heritage Site and a Man and Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO, both indications of the Park’s biological importance.Komodo National Park includes three major islands: Komodo, Rinca and Padar, as well as numerous smaller islands creating a total surface area (marine and land) of 1817km (proposed extensions would bring the total surface area up to 2,321km2). As well as being home to the Komodo dragon, the Park provides refuge for many other  notable terrestrial species such as the orange-footed scrub fowl, an endemic rat, and the Timor deer. Moreover, the Park includes one of the richest marine environments including coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, seamounts, and semi-enclosed bays. These habitats harbor more than 1,000 species of fish, some 260 species of reef-building coral, and 70 species of sponges. Dugong, sharks, manta rays, at least 14 species of whales, dolphins, and sea turtles also make Komodo National Park their home.Komodo National Park is home to about 3,500 people who live in four villages. The largest settlement is Komodo Village on Komodo Island; the other settlements are Rinca Village and Kerora Village on Rinca Island; and Paparagan Village on Paparagan Island. Most of the people in Komodo National Park make their living out of fishing. Some people earn extra income by carving wooden Komodo dragons to sell to visitors on Komodo Island, or at the airport and in hotels of Labuan Bajo.The mystery of how the huge dragons found their way to Komodo and why they can only be found there is still not clear, herewith creating a fertile ground for unproven theories and assumptions. A popular theory suggests that periods of low sea levels enabled the dragons to reach Flores by land. As an assumed relic of extinct giant lizards, they only survived because of a lack of natural enemies in these islands’ isolated environment. With less than 2,500 lizards left, the Komodo dragon has now entered the International Union of Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) red list of endangered species. The most threatening factor to survival is poachers who constantly minimize the population of the Timor deer, the Komodo dragon’s staple food.

Chitwan national park-  Nepal is a land of extreme contrasts in climate and geography, It has a unique topography ranging from lowlands with sub-tropical jungles to arctic conditions in the Himalayan highlands. Within a mere 150 kilometers the land rises from near sea level in the south to over 8000 meters in the North. This, together with the monsoon rainfall along the south facing slopes, has resulted in compacting virtually all climate zones found on planet Earth. As a result, Nepal has been endowed with a great diversity of life-zones providing a home for a large variety of plants, birds and animals. The Chitwan National Park (CNP) is a world heritage property, and it also contains a Ramsar Site – Beeshazari Tal in its buffer zone. The CNP has a history of over 3 decades in park management and a rich experience in resolving conflicts between the park and the people.It is a rich natural area in the Terai, the subtropical southern part of Nepal. A total of 68 species of mammals, 544 species of birds, 56 species of herpetofauna and 126 species of fish have been recorded in the park. The park is especially renowned for its protection of One Horned Rhinoceros, Royal Bengal Tiger and Gharial Crocodile.

Masada national park, Israel – Masada is not only important because it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site or an ancient fortress occupying a breathtaking  strategic location high on a flat plateau above the Dead Sea, but because of its symbolic importance as a symbol of determination and heroism which continues to this day with many Israeli soldiers sworn in here. Masada is one of the greatest archaeological sites in Israel and, perha The fortress of Masada was built in the year 30 BCE by King Herod, whose architectural feats have left their mark throughout the country. Massada is situated on the top of a mountain with steep sides and a flat top like a parapet overlooking the desert panorama to the west and the Dead Sea to the east.  The thrilling story of the site reveals the courage of the defenders of Massada and their battle against the conquering Romans.  The story, related against the background of the ancient panorama, is as thrilling as a Hollywood movie, and is filled with tension, struggle, and love.The fortress of Massada was built in the year 30 BCE by King Herod, whose architectural feats have left their mark throughout the country.  At the beginning of the great revolt against Rome in the year 68 BCE, the site was conquered by a group of Jewish zealots, and Massada became their last stronghold.  In the year 72 the Romans besieged Massada and succeeded in reaching the steep fortress after constructing a huge earthen ramp on its western side.  In the year 73, the 960 Jewish zealots living at the top of Massada chose to commit suicide rather than to fall into the hands of the Romans alive. Their deeds left behind a saga of courage, heroism, and martyrdom. Thailand: khao yai national park.

Ranthambore national park, india– Ranthambore National Park is one of the biggest and most renowned national park in Northern India. The park is located in the Sawai Madhopur district of southeastern Rajasthan, which is about 130 km from Jaipur. Being considered as one of the famous and former hunting grounds of the Maharajas of Jaipur, today the Ranthambore National Park terrain is major wildlife tourist attraction spot that has pulled the attention of many wildlife photographers and lovers in this destination.Spread across an area of 392 sq kms, Ranthambore National Park is situated in the Sawai Madhopur district of Rajasthan. It is one of the largest and famous National Parks in India. Once known as the hunting base for Maharajas of Jaipur, Ranthambore National Park today is a major tourist destination. Ranthambore National Park is very famous for its tiger population. Tigers are often seen during the day, going about their regular chores. This national park is flanked by two sanctuaries namely Kaila Devi Sanctuary and the Mansingh Sanctuary. The park is also considered as a heritage site and has been home to many species of plants, reptiles and birds. It is also a place where some of the largest banyan trees in India are found. This national park has several lakes within its premises. The park draws lot of wildlife enthusiasts and photographers from all over the world.

Bokor national park, Cambodia – Established by the French as a hill station in 1925, Bokor has since been abandoned twice, during World War II and the Khmer Rouge period. The area including Bokor ‘mountain’ was established as a national park in 1993 with its 1,500 square kilometres spanning four Cambodian provinces. Despite substantial illegal logging, it’s still home to gibbons, hornbills, civets and sunbears. Recent development of a new casino, hotel and hangar-like convention centre may have affected the ghostly ambiance of the hill station, but included building a wonderful curving road to the top of the hill, making Bokor much easier to access.The most beautiful and most mystical natural park of Southeast Asia, it is, of cource, Phnom Bokor. 140 thousand hectare of untouched mountain jungle, the biggest herd of wild elephants in Southeast Asia. Park Phnom Bokor is located in Elephant mountains being continuation Cardamon mountains (Kravan). Most park Phnom Bokor point – mountain Kamtjaj is high (Bokor, Phnom on khmer dictionary means – the mountain) has height of 1077 metres above sea level and is the point second for height point in Cambodia. At once at entrance to park virgin forests begin.

Gorkhi-terelj national park, Mongolia – One of the national parks of Mongolia. It is about 80km north-east of Ulaanbaatar, is a deservedly popular destination. At 1600m, the area is cool and the alpine scenery is magnificent, and there are great opportunities for hiking, rock climbing, swimming (in icy water), rafting, horse riding and, for hard-core extreme sports fanatics, skiing in the depths of winter. The park has many rock formations for rock climbers, and includes two famous formations named for things they resemble: Turtle Rock (Mongolian: Melkhii Khad) and the Old Man Reading a Book (Praying Lama Rock). Terelj was first developed for tourism in 1964 and 30 years later it became part of the Gorkhi-Terelj National Park. To the north-east, the park joins into the Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area, comprising over 1.2 million hectares of the Tov, Selenge and Khentii aimags. The Khan Khentii park is almost completely uninhabited by humans, but it is home to endangered species of moose, brown bear and weasel, to name but a few, and to over 250 species of birds.

Jigme dorji national park, Bhutan – With an area of 4,349 sq. km, the Jigme Dorji National Park is the largest protected area in Bhutan. It is one of the most biologically rich areas in the Eastern Himalayan region, and stretches from warm broad-leaved forests to permanent ice fields and glaciers on Bhutan’s north-western border.The monsoon rains and a varied topographical gradient, from just over 1,000 meters to more than 7,000 meters above sea level, account for this rich plant and animal diversity. Jigme Dorji National Park (JDNP) is the second largest national park in Bhutan with an area of 4316 sq. km. Located in the north western park of the country, the park also shares international border with the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. The habitats ranging from subtropical (1,400 m; 4,600 ft.) to Alpine (7,000 m; 22,970 ft.). is rich in biodiversity with a present record of 36 mammals, 328 birds, 5 reptiles, 300 medicinal plants, and 39 butterflies. It was in JDNP where tigers were first sighted above 4000 meters sharing habitat with snow leopards. Besides the rich floral and faunal diversity, the sources of four major rivers, Pachhu, Wangchhu, Phochhu and Mochhu lie in the park as well.The park spans across 5 districts, namely Paro, Thimphu, Punakha, Wangduephodrang and Gasa. Park headquarters based in Damji, Gasa and its 4 range offices addresses common challenges faced by protected areas elsewhere, like human-wildlife conflicts, unsustainable collection/or use of forest resources, and illegal wildlife tradeSatyr Tragopan (Tragopan satyra) and other high-altitude species are characteristic of this park, along with other rare birds associated with rivers in warm broadleaved forests, such as the White-bellied Heron, Palllas’s Fish Eagle, and Tawny Fish Owl (Bubo flavipes).

Jim corbett national park– Jim Corbett National Park, which is a part of the larger Corbett Tiger Reserve, a Project Tiger Reserve lies in the Nainital district of Uttarakhand. The magical landscape of Corbett is well known and fabled for its tiger richness. Established in the year 1936 as Hailey National Park, Corbett has the glory of being India’s oldest and most prestigious National Park. It is also being honored as the place where Project Tiger was first launched in 1973. This unique tiger territory is best known as the father who gave birth of the Project Tiger in India to protect the most endangered species and the Royal of India called Tigers. Spans over an extent of 520 square kilometers, its whole area comprises of hills, marshy depressions, riverine belts, grasslands and large lake. It is among the few tiger reserves in India that allows overnight stays in the lap of the National Park. Nature watch and wildlife viewing in the park is done in an open four wheeler Jeep and on elephant back. Sheltering a healthy population of tigers and rare species like Otters and the endemic fish eating crocodile, the national park is one of the most sought after destinations for the wildlife buffs. Dhikala, situated at the border of the extensive Patil Dun valley, is the most popular destination in Corbett because of its superb location and sheer abundance of wildlife present.

Kaziranga national park– Kaziranga National Park lies partly in Golaghat District and partly in Nagaon District of Assam. It is the oldest park in assam covers an area of 430 Sq kms along the river Brahmaputra on the North and the Karbi Anglong hills on the South. The National Highway 37 passes through the park area and tea estates, hemmed by table-top tea bushes. One can even see the rhinos and wild elephants straying near the highway.KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK, a name known worldwide for its success in the conservation history of one horned Indian Rhinoceros, provides habitat for a number of threatened species and migratory birds. A symbol of dedication for the conservation of animals and their habitat, Kaziranga, with a National Park status represents single large established protected area within the Burma Monsoon Forest Biogeographically Province to provide long term viable conservation. Spread over civil jurisdictions of Nagaon and Golaghat districts in Assam with mighty Brahmaputra river on the north and verdant Karbi Anglong hills on the south between Longitude 92° 50′ E & 93° 41′ E and Latitude 26° 30′ N and 26° 50′ N, Kaziranga National Park is an out standing example representing significant on going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of wet land ecosystem and communities of plants and animals. Kaziranga contains the most important and significant natural habitat for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation. The above mentioned values and criteria made Kaziranga National Park to get inscribed on the world heritage list of “Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage” in the year 1985.

Gir national park – The Gir National Park and wildlife sanctuary is located about 65 km south east in the Junagadh district of Gujarat. Gir National Park is one of the India’s finest wildlife sanctuaries located in Gujarat. This national park is set up in an area of 1412 square km. of lush deciduous forests. This national park was established on 18th September 1965 as a Forest Reserve to conserve the Asiatic lion. This sanctuary is the final refuge of the rare Asian lions which roamed freely two centuries ago throughout Middle East and some parts of India. Sasan, with a forest rest house, is the headquarters of the sanctuary. Since 1884, Gir National Park has been the only habitat of the Asiatic lion. During the British Raj, lions were hunted mercilessly by the British officers assisted by the obliging Maharajas and Nawabs. Every Maharaja was proud of the number of lions or tigers he killed during his lifetime. In the year 1899 the famine decreased the lion population so badly that Lord Curzon cancelled his shoot in Gir where he had been invited by the Nawab for a ‘Shikaar’. The Lord Curzon also advised the ruler to protect the remaining lions. By the time India achieved independence, the number of lions get increased, but they were once again hunted by the Maharajas. The Government of India banned the hunting of lion in the mid 1960 and now this park is open only for the photo safaris. The Gir National Park later became a major tourist attraction in India. About 300 lions are found in this park.

Kanha national park – Kanha Tiger Reserve is spread over an area of 1,949 sq km (940 sq km of core area and 1,009 sq km of buffer zone), making it one of the best habitats for tigers in India (the current dominant male, Munna, is easily recognized by a symbol on his forehead that reads – “CAT”). The park is situated in the Central Indian Highlands, which are part of the extensive tableland that forms India’s main peninsula. The highlands once were continuous forests and accounted for a significant part of the country’s wilderness areas and wildlife habitats. Today, these forests have become fragmented and survive in parks such as Panna, Bandhavgarh, Kanha, Pench and Sanjay.The sal forests and vast meadows contain tigers (89 at last count) and leopards and support huge populations of deer and antelope, including the rare barasingha (deer). You’ll see plenty of langur monkeys, the odd gaur (Indian bison), maybe even a family or two of wild boar and the odd lonesome jackal or two. The park is also home to more than 300 bird species.Khatiya Gate in Khatiya village is easily the most popular; other gates into the park include Mukki, 45km southeast of Khatiya, and Sarahi, 60km northeast.

Valley of flowers national park- Valley of Flowers National Park is an Indian national park, located at a height in West Himalaya. It is renowned for its meadows of endemic alpine flowers and the variety of flora found there. It is located in Uttarakhand state. This richly diverse area is also home to rare and endangered animals, including the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear and blue sheep. The gentle landscape of the Valley of Flowers National Park complements the rugged mountain wilderness of Nanda Devi National Park to the east. Together they encompass a unique transition zone between the mountain ranges of the Zanskar and Great Himalaya. The park stretches over an expanse of 87.50 km². Both parks are encompassed in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (223,674 ha) which is further surrounded by a buffer zone (5,148.57 km²).  The valley had always been known to the local people who avoided getting to this area for fear of fairies, who they believed, would take them away. It was in 1931 that Frank Smythe and Holdsworth stumbled into the valley while returning from their successful Kamet expedition and were “at once transported from a region of solemn austerity to a fairy land of dainty flowers, most of them dwarf but brilliant in colour”. Smythe wrote about the valley and its flowers – “their carpet is a celestial one, breathing innocence and joy to the world overburdened with sophistication and sorrow”. His writing invoked a great interest of the people in this valley, both at home and abroad. Legends associate this valley area with “Gandhamadan” from where Hanuman of Ramayana collected “Sanjeevani” herb to revive Laksmana. Hanuman had to visit far-flung areas in his search for the life-saving herb, some named after him. He visited Hanuman Chatti near Yamunotri, Hanuman Tibba near Gangotri, Hanuman peak near Nandadevi, Hanuman Chatti near Badrinath and ultimately the valley of flowers or Nanankanan as it is also known as.

Sundarbans national park – Sunderbans National Park, the land where entire wildlife  embroidered to the perfection, is situated in South 24 Parganas at the  most charismatic location of Sundarban delta which is largest delta of the world. In 1973 entire land of sundarbans national park was declared tiger reserve, in 1977 wildlife sanctuary and on fourth day of May 1984 as a national park and in 1987 a new lesson was added by UNESCO when they titled it as world heritage site. The national park is a mazy network of tiny islands, mudflats and tidal waterways which present a very good example of a natural awe-inspiring scenery. Sunderban consists an area of about 4100 sq kilometers out of which around 1700 sq kilometers are river, canals or creeks. The area is not only known for natural scenery and tiger it’s also abode of wide range of fauna and flora including 58 species of mammals, 55 species of reptiles and around 250 species of birds.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. All image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

Dr.Verghese Kurien- The Father of White Revolution

Dr.Verghese Kurien was born on 26th November 1921 to an affluent Christain family at Kozhikode, Kerala. Dr Kurien did his graduation in Physics from Loyola College, Madras in 1940 and Bachelors in mechanical engineering from the College of Engineering, Guindy. After this, he joined the Tata Steel Technical Institute, Jamshedpur. He got a specialized training in dairying at the National Dairy Research Institute, Bangalore. On the scholarship from the Government of India he went to the United States to earn a Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (Distinction) from Michigan State University in 1948. He believed that the true development of a nation was possible only if the farmers at the grass roots were entrusted with the responsibility of organizing democratic enterprises. Growing up as the son of a civil surgeon, young Verghese had no interest whatsoever in dairy production. Dr. Kurien, was the architect of India’;s White Revolution, which helped India emerge as the largest milk producer in the world. Founder Chairman of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) from 1965 to 1998, the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), from 1973 to 2006 and the Institute of Rural Management (IRMA) from 1979 to 2006, his professional life has been dedicated to empowering the Indian farmers through co-operatives. Dr. Kurien has helped to lay the foundation of democratic enterprises at the grass roots. He believed that by placing technology and professional management in the hands of the farmers, the standard of living of millions of our poor people can be improved.  Kurien was a life-long learner who believed that education is a never ending process. He had been bestowed with honorary degrees from many prominent institutions including Michigan State University and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. He was honored with several prestigious awards for his relentless services to the dairy and farming communities. Some of his awards include: Padma Shri (1965), Padma Bhushan (1966) and Padma Vibhushan (1999) by the Government of India, the Ramon Magsaysay Award (1963), and World Food Prize (1989). About some 100 kms from Ahmedabad lies a small city named Anand. The city is known as the Milk Capital of India due to presence of the famous Amul Dairy there. Amul – one of the most famous Dairy brands of our country came into existence in 1946. During that time there was only one dairy in the district of Anand and in Gujarat known as Polson Dairy which had been established in 1930. Polson Dairy was providing superior quality dairy products to up-market consumers. However it was involved in the exploitation of Indian farmers by not providing sufficient amount to them for milk and also not allowing them to sell milk to other vendors. Indian national leader Sardar Patel along with agitated farmers of that area initiated a non-cooperation movement against this process in the year 1946 and this lead to the foundation of Amul on 14th December 1946. Initially it supplied milk and other dairy products without any formalized distribution network or any supply chain in place. The brand name Amul had not been adopted at that time and it was called KDCMPUL (Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producer’s union Limited). It started initially with two dairy co-operative societies and 247 liters of milk only. He was married to Molly with whom he had one daughter, Nirmala. He was a grandfather to Siddharth, Nirmala’s son.He lived a long and productive life and died in 2012 at the age of 90 after a brief illness.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar – Staunch supporter of Indian Freedom

Vinayak Damodar Savarkar is known to people as one of the keen freedom fighters of India. But he was not just a freedom fighter. He was a bold warrior, good speaker , prolific writer, a poet, a historian, a philosopher, a social worker, a cautious leader, a bard and Staunch supporter of Freedom and much more. The following article is a glimpse of what we mean by his multifaceted personality. His biography is like a thrilling novel. It inspires readers with patriotism. Vinayak was born in the family of Damodar and Radhabai Savarkar in the village of Bhagur, near the city of Nasik, Maharashtra. He had three other siblings namely Ganesh, Narayan, and a sister named Mainabai. He was the proponent of liberty as the ultimate ideal. Savarkar was a poet, writer and playwright. He launched a movement for religious reform advocating dismantling the system of caste in Hindu culture, and reconversion of the converted Hindus back to Hindu religion. Savarkar created the term Hindutva, and emphasized its distinctiveness from Hinduism which he associated with social and political disunity. Savarkar’s Hindutva sought to create an inclusive collective identity. The five elements of Savarkar’s philosophy were Utilitarianism, Rationalism and Positivism, Humanism and Universalism, Pragmatism and Realism. In 1920, many prominent freedom fighters including Vithalbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Bal Gangadhar Tilak demanded the release of Savarkar. On May 2, 1921, Savarkar was moved to Ratnagiri jail, and from there to the Yeravada jail. In Ratnagiri jail Savarkar wrote the book ‘Hindutva’. On January 6, 1924 he was h freed under the condition that he would not leave Ratnagiri district and abstain from political activity for the next five years. On his release, Veer Savarkar founded the Ratnagiri Hindu Sabha on January 23, 1924 that aimed to preserve India’s ancient culture and work for social welfare. Later Savarkar joined Tilak’s Swaraj Party and founded the Hindu Mahasabha as a separate political party. He was elected President of the Mahasabha and toiled for building Hindu Nationalism and later joined the Quit India movement.Veer Savarkar died on February 26, 1966 at the age of 1983.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

Umrao Jaan Ada – An Urdu novel by Mirza Hadi Ruswa

Umrao Jaan Ada  is an Urdu novel by Mirza Hadi Ruswa (1857–1931), first published in 1899.It is considered the first Urdu novel by many and tells the story of a courtesan and poet by the same name from 19th century Lucknow, as recounted by her to the author. Umrao Jan Ada, first published in 1905, is generally acclaimed as one of the greatest Urdu novels. It is the story of a girl abducted in her early age and sold to a procures who trains her for prostitution. The novel has rapid change of pace, realistic detail, and a central monolithic character in Umrao Jan Ada, who in her old age remorsefully recounts the story of her life. The Nawabi culture of India mainly in Lucknow, in pre-modern India, patronised art and entertainment in the form of music, poetry and the courtesans’ performances. Attending a mushaira, a social gathering elite where poetic expressions also led to a battle of wits among the participating poets, was a mark of cultural elitism. The lady- performers known as the tawaifs who learnt to read and write in Urdu. They were also skilled at the classical dance and music. Their company was sought not only for physical pleasure, but also for cultural entertainment. They reside is a kotha which is different from a brothel. They are educated, well-versed and highly skilled entertainers who uphold the Urdu high culture. MIRZA Muhammad Hadi Ruswa is famous for one of the earliest novels of Urdu, Umrao Jan Ada. It is based on the tragically sensational life story of the courtesan and poetess Umrao Jan. Umrao Jan Ada, though not a picaresque novel, contains many picaresque elements. The story is told in the first person as autobiography; it is episodic in nature; the plot consists of a series of thrilling incidents and the heroine moves from place to place, providing an opportunity gor satirizing the corruption and hypocrisy of a whole society and epoch. Ruswa, with incomparable energy, has individualized each character and each room in the procuress’s quarter, giving the “social center” and the spirit of the age. The total effect is a panorama of early 19th-century life in Oudh before its annexation by the British in 1856. The looting, killing, abduction and prostitution; the voluptuous maids, the amorous stinging not dancing girls, their education, habits and etiquette; their clientele, the lascivious nawabs, the God- fearing ascetics, coarse criminals, reckless gamblers, seasoned aristocrats, and naive social climbers; the entrancing musical concerts and moonlight poetical symposiums—all these are integrated into the structure of the plot to secure a unity of tone and form hitherto unknown in Urdu. Ruswa was eccentric, quick-witted and possessed a fine sense of humor. Capable of rare achievements, he switched fields of endeavor often, moving from creative writing to astronomy to alchemy to philosophy. He produced some 50 volumes, including philosophical and religious discourses, metrical romances and translations and adaptations. Of his three original novels, one is Umrao Jan Ada, on which his fame rests; the other two are of uneven quality and have gone into oblivion. Ruswa died in 1931.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

Shaheed Baba Deep Singh Ji

Baba Deep singh was born on the 20th January 1682 A.D. in the village of Pahuwind in district of Amritsar.He was the leader of Shaheeda’n Misl under the forces of Taruna Dal. He sacrificed his life avenging the destruction of Harmandir Sahib, Amritsar by the forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali. His father’s name was Bhai Bhagtu. He went to Anandpur on the Vaisakhi of 1700 A.D., where after obtaining baptism (into Sikhism) he started learning weaponry and riding from the Sikhs. From Bhai Mani singh he began learning reading and writing Gurmukhi and interpretation of Guru’s word. When Baba Deep Singh came to know that Jahan Khan, a General of Abdali, had violated the sanctity of Sri Darbar Sahib, he set our in that direction immediately accompanied by only eight Sings. On the way large batches of Singhs joined him. But, at Sangarana, he drew up a line and asked them to cross it over if they were willing to lay down their lives. Everyone jumped over the line without hesitation. Baba Deep Singh had his head chopped off in the fight, but he caried it on his hand and fought his way to the periphery of the Darbar Sahib where he finally breathed his las. SHAHEED BUNGA BABA DEEP SINGH: The place is in the memory of Baba Deep Singh’s (A Great Sikh Warrior) who sacrificed for the dignity of Sri Harmandir Sahib while fighting with Mughals in 1762. This place stands as a memory to the bunga of Shaheed missal to which Baba Deep Singh belongs.

In 1762 Harmandir Sahib was invaded by Mughal invader Ahmed Shah Abdali. As the news of sacrilege of Harmandir Sahib reached Baba Deep Singh, at once moved towards Amritsar, by the time it reached Tarn Taran city the strength rose to nearly 5000. Baba Deep Singh made a prayer that he reaches Harmandir Sahib while fighting the enemy. While nearly 6 miles from Amritsar there was a pitched battle between Baba Deep Singh and Shah Jamaan (the Mughal commander). Shah Jamaan fell down where as the head of Baba Deep Singh was nearly chopped of. One of the Sikh soldiers reminded Baba Deep Singh of the prayer he had made. Baba Deep Singh supported his head with left hand and continued moving towards Harmandir Sahib. This mere scene made the Mughal army run back foot. Baba Deep Singh reached Harmandir Sahib. This Gurdwara in memory of Baba Deep Singh, reminds one of the prayer made by a Sikh devotee and fulfilled.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

Battle of the Hydaspes River: King Porus Vs Alexander

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Porus or Poros  was a king of the Pauravas whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab) rivers in what is now Punjab. This state was situated between the rivers Hydaspes (modern Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab). Its capital may have been at the site now known as Lahore. Unlike his neighbour, Ambhi, the king of Taxila (Takshashila), Porus resisted Alexander. But with his elephants and slow-moving infantry bunched, he was outmatched by Alexander’s mobile cavalry and mounted archers in the battle of the Hydaspes. the Hydaspes (Jhelum) and the Acesines rivers, in the Punjab, in the Indian subcontinent, met Alexander the Great at the Battle of the Hydaspes River, in June 326 B.C. Porus brought war elephants with him that terrified the Greeks and their horses. Monsoons proved more of an obstacle to the Indian bowmen (who could not use the ground to gain purchase for their long bows) than to the Macedonians who crossed the swollen Hydaspes on pontoons. Alexander’s troops gained the upper hand; even the Indian elephants stampeded their own troops. King Porus surrendered to Alexander, but appears to have continued on as a satrap or viceroy, granted the land to the east of his own kingdom, until he was killed between 321 and 315 B.C. Alexander’s victory brought him to the eastern border of the Punjab, but he was prevented by his own troops from going into the kingdom of Magadha. The Indian campaign of Alexander-the Great in 326 B.C. has a lot of historical importance. This battle (Battle of Hydaspes) fills itself with great importance. According to the Greek records, In his conquest of occupying Asia, Alexander reached Hindukush mountains (in the present-day Pakistan) and made an alliance with Ambhi, king of Taxila and their combined force defeated the Purushottama (Porus) in the battle. Though he won the battle, impressed by the king, Alexander returned the kingdom. However, these dossiers beg serious doubts against the Alexander’s campaign to India.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information. 

Most Dangerous Airport Landing in The World – At Paro Airport

It is believed that Bhutan was inhabited as early as 2000 B.C. due to the presence of early stone implements discovered in the region. The tiny kingdom of Bhutan shares with Nepal the world’s greatest concentration of mountains and living heritage of Buddhism. Flight to Paro can truly be described as a flight into fantasy. During the flight, a firsthand close up view of Mt. Everest, Mt. Kanchenjunga and other famous peaks of the Himalayan range become a reality.  Paro Airport in Bhutan might look beautiful, but is actually considered one of the most dangerous airports in the world, according to The Daily Mail. Paro international Airport is the only airport in the country. It is maintained and run by the Department of Civil Aviation. The airport has two operational runway ends located at 7300 fts. above the sea level. With the runway length of only 1985 mtrs and very high hills surrounding the airport it is one of the most challenging airports to fly into. The flight into the deep and beautiful valley of paro itself is an exiliherating experience. The terminal building commissioned in the year 1999 was designed to offer visitors the first glimpse of the unique architectural heritage of the nation. Our efforts are dedicated in keeping the airport as beautiful and as modern as it is Bhutanes without having to compromise on passenger convenience.  As far as landing goes, it’s considered the most challenging airport in the world. Landings in this airport are described as terrifying and breathtaking. This Himalayan airport is top of the most dangerous airport. Approaching the airport you will see 18,000 foot tall peaks on both sides of the valley and you are likely to make a crosswind landing. The airport is located at a mile and a half above sea level. The runway is 6,445 feet long, which means that it is shorter than its elevation. Passengers flying to this remote region may have to take something to steady their nerves. The tiny airport nestled among the steep mountains of the Himalayas is said to be the most dangerous in the world. There are only 8 pilots manage to bring more than 30,000 people per year into this airport located in Asia. The pilots encounter vicious winds in the valley where the airport is located. Flights at Paro are only authorized at daytime with complete visual meteorological conditions.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

Do you know the real name of Mr Bean?

A rubber-faced comedian and actor, Rowan Atkinson is especially famous in Great Britain, first as a cult favorite in the television series Blackadder, then as an even bigger star in the series Mr. Bean. Rowan Atkinson was born on January 6, 1955, in Durham, England. Rowan was the youngest of four boys. He was sent to two boarding schools, both of which were run under the auspices of the Church of England. Atkinson’s character of Mr. Bean existed for 10 years before the character was even given a name. The Mr. Bean character catapulted Atkinson into international stardom as the show was seen all over the world. It was the highest-rated comedy on British TV in the 1990s; it was sold to more than 245 countries and 50 airlines. Later, there were movies such as Bean: The Ultimate Disaster Movie (1997) and Mr. Bean’s Holiday (2007). The actor has left open the door to the possibility of reprising the Mr. Bean character in the future. Mr. Bean became the most popular show in the U.K. and has since been shown in 89 countries where it has gained a cult following comparable to Monty Python and Fawlty Towers. Atkinson himself attributes his character’s popularity to the fact that the socially awkward, middle-aged Bean’s mundane adventures, largely due to his clumsy inability to cope with even the smallest of life’s foibles, mirror the feelings and experiences of people the world over. In 1997, Atkinson brought the character to the big screen in Bean. Other notable Atkinson film performances include his voice characterization of Zazu in The Lion King and that of the hilariously inarticulate priest in Four Weddings and a Funeral. Atkinson oversaw an animated television series based on his beloved Mr. Bean character, and then took a cameo part in his longtime collaborator Richard Curtis’ directorial debut Love Actually. In 2003 he starred in another international comedy hit, the spy spoof Johnny English, a movie so successful it spawned a sequel in 2011.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

Tom Cruise – An American actor and filmmaker.

I’ve been… chased by paparazzi, and they run lights, and they chase you and harass you the whole time. It happens all over the world, and it has certainly gotten worse. You don’t know what it’s like being chased by them.
– Tom Cruise

Thomas Cruise Mapother IV, Born (July 3, 1962) better known by his screen name Tom Cruise, is an American actor and film producer. Forbes magazine ranked him as the world’s most powerful celebrity in 2006. He has been nominated for three Academy Awards and won three Golden Globe Awards.  Cruise was born in Syracuse, New York, the son of Mary Lee (née Pfeiffer), a special education teacher, and Thomas Cruise Mapother III, an electrical engineer. Cruise has German and English ancestry from his paternal great-grandparents, William Reibert and Charlotte Louise Voelker; and Irish ancestry from his paternal great-great-grandfather Thomas O’Mara. Cruise’s numerous film credits also include “The Color of Money” (1986), with Paul Newman; “Rain Man” (1988), with Dustin Hoffman; “A Few Good Men” (1992), with Jack Nicholson; “The Firm” (1993); and “Interview with the Vampire: the Vampire Chronicles” (1994).

When I work, I work very hard. So I look to work with people who have that level of dedication. And I depend on that from everyone. From the director to my crews that I work with.
– Tom Cruise

He starred as super spy Ethan Hunt in 1996’s “Mission: Impossible,” and reprised his role in the hit 2000, 2006 and 2011 sequels. An actor whose name became synonymous with all-American entertainment, Tom Cruise spent the 1980s as one of Hollywood’s brightest-shining golden boys. Born on July 3, 1962 in Syracuse, NY, Cruise was high-school wrestler until he was sidelined by a knee injury. Soon taking up acting, he found that the activity served a dual purpose: performing satiated his need for attention, while the memorization aspect of acting helped him come to grips with his dyslexia. Moving to New York in 1980, Cruise’s first big hit was Risky Business in 1982, in which he entered movie-trivia infamy with the scene wherein he celebrates his parents’ absence by dancing around the living room in his underwear.

I love what I do. I take great pride in what I do. And I can’t do something halfway, three-quarters, nine-tenths. If I’m going to do something, I go all the way.

Tom Cruise

The Hollywood press corps began touting Cruise as one of the “Brat Pack,” a group of twenty-something actors who seemed on the verge of taking over the movie industry in the early ’80s. Tom Cruise  net worth is estimated at $482 million. Tom Cruise  net worth came from his works as an actor and as film producer but majority of his wealth came from his box office movies. Once counted as the sure shot ticket to success in Hollywood, he is the only actor to have his six consecutive movies gross more than $100 million on the box office. His first major blockbuster was 1983’s Risky Business, which literally made him the most sought after actor in the business, this also marked the beginning of Tom Cruise  net worth.

I’ve never done work for money ever. If your choices are based on grosses and the film doesn’t do well, what does that mean? It leaves you with nothing.
Tom Cruise

A string of Hollywood hits and he was clearly leading the way, both in terms of cash and fan following. His stint as a producer has been even more eventful. The Mission Impossible franchise, which is a baby of his own production company, is one of the highest grossing movie franchisee of all times booming Tom Cruise  net worth. He has everything that takes to be one of the most successful celebrities of history. May be that’s why he is the only person to make it to the top of Forbes Celebrity 100 power list not once, but twice. Tom has been married three times. His first marriage to Mimi Rogers lasted from May 9, 1987, until February 4, 1990. He then famously married Nicole Kidman on December 24, 1990, and they adopted two children together: Isabella and Connor. They divorced on August 8, 2001. Five years later, he married Katie Holmes on November 18, 2006, and they had daughter, Suri. On June 29, 2012, it was announced that Katie had filed for divorce from Tom.

I always look for a challenge and something that’s different.
Tom Cruise

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

Grizzly bears – A solitary animal

Grizzly bear is subspecies of the brown bear. These huge animals originate from Europe and Asia, but today they can be found only in North America and Canada.  Grizzly bears are large and range in color from very light tan (almost white) to dark brown. They have a dished face, short, rounded ears and a large shoulder hump The hump is where a mass of muscles attach to the bear’s backbone and give the bear additional strength for digging.

They have very long claws on their front feet that also give them extra ability to dig after food and to dig their dens. Grizzly bears received their name because their brown fur can be tipped with white. This gives them a “grizzled” look, especially when blacklit by the sun. Grizzly bears weigh upwards of 700 pounds. The males are heavier than the females and can weigh up to 1,700 pounds. A large female will weigh up to 800 pounds. Grizzly bears are omnivores. The most commonly eaten plants are the fleshy roots of some plants, fruits, berries, grasses, and forbs. If grizzly bears are on the hunt, their prey can include fish (especially salmon), rodents like ground squirrels, carrion and hoofed animals like moose, elk, caribou, and deer. They are especially good at catching the young of these hoofed wildlife species. Grizzly bears can be found in woodlands, forests, alpine meadows and prairies.

In many habitats they prefer riparian areas along rivers and streams. Mating season lasts from late spring to early summer, but females become pregnant when they enter hibernation. They give birth to 2 cubs few months before the hibernation ends. Cubs can climb trees when they are young. After few years they will lose this ability because of their long claws. Bear’s claw is long like human’s finger. Bears are excellent swimmers. They are also fast runners; they can run up to 30 miles per hour. They have perfect eyesight and excellent sense of smell. They will detect smell better than hound dog.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information.

Tiger Woods – “Winning is not always the barometer of getting better.”

Eldrick Tont “Tiger” Woods is an American professional golfer who is among the most successful golfers of all time.

Athlete Eldrick Tont Woods, better known as Tiger Woods, was born on December 30, 1975, in Cypress, California, the only child of an African-American Army officer father and a Thai mother. When Woods was a child, his father began calling him “Tiger” in honor of a fellow soldier and friend who had the same moniker. Around this same time, Woods learned to play golf. His father, Earl, served as his teacher and mentor. Around the age of 8, Woods had become extremely proficient at the game, even showing off his skills on television shows such as Good Morning America.

Tiger Woods set an amazing pro golf career in motion in 1997, when he became the youngest man and the first African American to win the U.S. Masters. Woods was the child of an African American father and a Thai mother. A naturally gifted player, he took up golfing at a very young age and soon became a prodigy, taking swings on a television program when he was two years old and shooting a 48 over nine holes at age three. In 1991, at age 15, he became the youngest winner of the U.S. Junior Amateur Championship; he also captured the 1992 and 1993 Junior Amateur titles. In 1994 he came from six holes behind to win the first of his three consecutive U.S. Amateur Championships. He enrolled at Stanford University in 1994 and won the collegiate title in 1996. After claiming his third U.S. Amateur title, Woods left college and turned professional on August 29, 1996. Playing as a pro in eight PGA events in 1996, he won two titles and was named the PGA Tour’s Rookie of the Year.

In April of 1997, and only eight months into his professional career, Woods played in the prestigious Masters tournament held at Georgia’s Augusta National Golf Club. The Masters title is perhaps the most coveted honor in the world of golf. In addition to a hefty prize purse, first-place winners are awarded a green blazer to symbolize their membership among the most elite golfers in the world. Contestants are typically well into their thirties or even their forties by the time they win the Masters Tournament. That year Woods competed against golfing greats, but managed to best the most seasoned competition. Tiger  Woods  net worth is estimated at $600 million.  He is a renowned golf genius and a perfect combination of power, finesse and athletic prowess. The journey of Tiger Woods from golf prodigy to golf professional began at a very little age of two. His hard work has single-handedly redefined the game of golf and blessed him with countless number of exciting tournament victories which sky rocketed Tiger  Woods  net worth. He has also been the face behind multimillion dollar endorsements where a significant portion of Tiger  Woods  net worth  came from. He is a perfect blend of incredible golf talents and youthful appeal which makes him an eye candy for the women.

Apart from being a golf champion, he is an avid fisherman who has gone fly-fishing as far away as Ireland and Alaska, Tiger Woods is one of the most charitable sports figures and even donated $3 million of his own money to victims of the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, how’s that for the human touch of Tiger  Woods  net worth?  His achievements speak for his success. He has amassed over 70 PGA victories and won at 14 majors, including 4 each at the PGA Championship and the Masters, booming Tiger  Woods  net worth . He is the first athlete to earn over a billion dollars over the course of his career and he has also been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record ten times – an achievement which became a plus factor to Tiger  Woods  net worth. Update: Recent girlfriend of Tiger Woods, U.S. Skier’ Lindsey Vonn seriously injured her right knee during a brutal crashed at the World Alpine Skiing Championship in Austria.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information. The owner of this “[Journal Edge]” blog does not share personal information with third-parties nor does [Journal Edge] store information is collected about your visit for use other than to analyze content performance through the use of cookies, which you can turn off at anytime by modifying your Internet browser’s settings. The owner is not responsible for the republishing of the content found on this blog on other Web sites or media without permission. I’m not a guru, nor do I have any kind of a black lore or accomplishment. Were all written in my article entitled have been expressed only through education purpose.

James Bond 007 – A fictional British Secret Service agent

The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, Ian Fleming, in full Ian Lancaster Fleming    (born May 28, 1908, London, England—died August 12, 1964, Canterbury, Kent), suspense-fiction novelist whose character James Bond, the stylish, high-living British secret service agent 007, became one of the most successful and widely imitated heroes of 20th-century popular fiction.  who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections. Since Fleming’s death in 1964, eight other authors have written authorized Bond novels or novelizations: Kingsley Amis, Christopher Wood, John Gardner, Raymond Benson, Sebastian Faulks, Jeffery Deaver, William Boyd and Anthony Horowitz. The latest novel to have been released is Trigger Mortis by Anthony Horowitz, published in September 2015. Additionally Charlie Higson wrote a series on a young James Bond, and Kate Westbrook wrote three novels based on the diaries of a recurring series character, Moneypenny. Bond—James Bond—is a pop culture icon who was born out of Ian Fleming’s spy novels and introduced to movie fans in 1962 with the release of the first 007 film, Dr. No. Sean Connery, the first actor to play James Bond, embodied the role of the be-tuxed international spy who thwarts international baddies in service to Her Majesty. Connery starred in seven Bond films and passed the keys to Bond’s Aston Martin to Australian actor/model George Lazenby (who played Bond in only one film, On Her Majesty’s Secret Service) followed by other actors who played the role including Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan and Daniel Craig. Here is a look at some of these iconic 007s.

List Of All James Bond Actors

Barry Nelson

Date of birth: April 16, 1917

Place of birth: San Fransisco, California

Birth name: Robert Haakon Nielsen

Times he played 007: 1 time

David Niven

Date of birth: March 1, 1910

Place of birth: London, UK

Birth name: James David Graham Niven

Times he played 007: 1 time

Sean Connery

Date of birth: August 25, 1930

Place of birth: Fountainbridge, Scotland

Birth name: Thomas Sean Connery

Times he played 007: 7 times

George Lazenby

Date of birth: September 5th, 1939

Place of birth: Goulburn, Australia

Birth name: George Robert Lazenby

Times he played 007: 1 time

Roger Moore

Date of birth: October 14, 1927

Place of birth: Stockwell, UK

Birth name: Roger George Moore

Times he played 007: 7 times

Timothy Dalton

Date of birth: March 21st, 1946

Place of birth: Colwyn Bay, Wales, UK

Birth name: Timothy Dalton

Times he played 007: 2 times

Pierce Brosnan

Date of birth: May 16h, 1953

Place of birth: Drogheda, Ireland

Birth name: Pierce Brendan Brosnan

Times he played 007: 4 times

Daniel Craig

Date of birth: March 2nd, 1968

Place of birth: Chester, England, UK

Birth name: Daniel Wroughton Craig

Fun fact: He is the first Bond actor to have been born after the Bond series began.

Times he played 007: three times, but Craig signed for a total of 5 Bond movies.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers. The events, characters and objects depicted in the Blog are ficticious. Any similarity to actual persons, living or dead, or to actual firms, is purely coincidental. The owner of [Journal Edge] will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information. The owner of this “[Journal Edge]” blog does not share personal information with third-parties nor does [Journal Edge] store information is collected about your visit for use other than to analyze content performance through the use of cookies, which you can turn off at anytime by modifying your Internet browser’s settings. The owner is not responsible for the republishing of the content found on this blog on other Web sites or media without permission. I’m not a guru, nor do I have any kind of a black lore or accomplishment. Were all written in my article entitled have been expressed only through education purpose.

Titan Atlas – The Legend of Roman Mythology

In Greek mythology the Titan Atlas was responsible for bearing the weight of the heavens on his shoulders, a burden given to him as punishment by Zeus. With a name perhaps conveying the meaning ‘very enduring’, Atlas was the son of the Titans Iapetus and Clymene (or Themis) and the brother of Epimetheus, Menoetius and Prometheus. Atlas was the father of the nymph Calypso and another daughter was Maia, who was one of the Pleiades and mother of the messenger god Hermes. Atlas was a legendary Titan. He was in a lot of stories, starting with a story including a hero named Hercules. Atlas led a battle of Titans against Zeus which lasted for ten years. Eventually Atlas was singled out by Zeus and forced to hold up the heavens as a special punishment. The Earth goddess gave Juno, Jupiter’s wife, a tree of golden apples as a wedding present. Atlas’s daughters had the role of protecting it. Hercules was ordered to fetch the golden apples from Atlas’ daughers, so he asked Atlas for help. Atlas had Hercules hold up the heavens while Atlas went to look for his daughters, who had the apples. Finally Atlas returned, but he didn”t want to take over holding up the sky again. He had enjoyed his brief break and told Hercules that he would deliver the apples himself to the king. Hercules tricked Atlas into taking the load back by asking Atlas to hold it while he shifted the load. Hercules then took the apples and Atlas again shouldered the weight of the heavens. Because the place where Atlas stood to perform his task was the westernmost end of the world known to the ancient Greeks, the ocean near him was called the Atlantic meaning the “Sea of Atlas” in his honor

* Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers.

Riomaggiore, Cinque Terre, Italy

It is quite sure that the origins of Riomaggiore date back to the 8th Century, when the inhabitants of the Vara valley, searching a milder climate to raise grapevines and olive-trees without the fear of pirate raids, moved towards the coast. The town climbs up along the ridges overlooking the sea and it is characterized from the typical stone houses with coloured façades and slate-roofs.The town of Riomaggiore presents typical features reflecting its history and traditions.The town stretches along a vertical axe where steep staircases are the only means to move around the town.The typical houses have one or two-floor towers in order to use at best the place at disposal.

The first historical traces date back to 1239, when the inhabitants of the feudal district of Carpena entered in the Compagnia Genovese.Only in 1343 Riomaggiore became independent as municipality and administration, and during Napoleon’s age it absorbed also the town of Manarola, whose historical roots are even older than Riomaggiore itself. Guardiola Tower, now a natural park, once it was one of the most equipped fortresses in the area.Riomaggiore is located at the interior of the Natural Park of Cinque Terre (founded by a Decree of the President of the Republic in 1999), and it is a Protected Marine Area housing several very rare animal and vegetal species. The sea of Cinque Terre is characterized by the presence of wonderful animals like dolphins and whales; in fact it is part of the Whales’ Sanctuary, a protected Marine Area. The fishing is regulated.

* Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers.

Antelope Canyon, American Southwest

Antelope Canyon is located near Page on Navajo Nation land, just outside Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and close to AZ 98 a few miles east of town (at milepost 299). Antelope is the most visited slot canyon in the Southwest, partly because it is easily accessible and by far the most publicized, and also since it is extremely beautiful, with just the right combination of depth, width, length, rock color and ambient light; many other slot canyons are deeper, narrower or longer, and some have rock that is even more colorful and sculptured, but here conditions are ideal.When approaching upper Antelope Canyon, there is no obvious clue as to its location. The trail seems to end at the base of a red sandstone plateau about 20 yards high, but the sight of an Indian jewelry stall soon indicates its position – the entrance is a narrow curved slit in the cliffs only a few feet wide. Once inside, the temperature drops as much as 20 degrees as the visitor enters one of the most beautiful of all natural formations. The lower canyon is longer and deeper than the upper section, but also slightly more challenging, requiring climbing down ladders in some places to descend several sheer drops. It was here that 11 people were drowned in a flash flood in August 1997, when water 50 feet deep from a thunderstorm 5 miles away swept through the canyon, eventually deepening it by 4 feet. Lower Antelope Canyon was closed for 9 months before reopening with improved safety features, and now all visitors must now be accompanied by a guide.

*Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers.

Fingal’s Cave

The name ‘Fingal’s Cave’ is wrapped in myth. Around 250 AD Finn MacCumhaill, or Fingal, was possibly an Irish general who had a band of faithful warriors – a Celtic parallel to King Arthur and his Round Table. Fingal is supposed to have been the father of Ossian, traditional bard of the Gaels. Gaels migrated into Scotland from Ireland until the Norsemen began their raids on the Scottish coast, and the stories of Fingal would doubtless have come across too. Soon he became revered in Scotland and, boosted by the Ossianic heroic verse and songs, his name was a natural choice to assign to this dramatic and awe inspiring cavern.The fantastic precision of Nature’s work in building up the basaltic columns on Staffa is due to the steady cooling of flows of lava as they came into contact with a colder bedrock and were exposed to the even more chilling effects of the weather of northern Scotland on the outer surfaces.

By some fluke of contraction on cooling the result is perfect, mainly hexagonal, columns. Curves in the columns were caused by the shape of the underlying rock over which the lava flowed. Sometimes close inspection  of the columns reveal whitish deposits between the joints, almost as though they were cemented. In fact, this is caused by salts such as calcite which were squeezed out of the basalt by immense forces of contraction as the rock cooled. The legend, which connects the two structures, is in effect geologically correct. Both the Giant’s Causeway and Fingal’s Cave were indeed created by the same ancient lava flow, which may have, at one time formed a “bridge” between the two sites. Of course, this happened some 60 million years ago, long before people would have been around to see it. Nonetheless, the deductive reasoning of the ancient peoples formed the connection and base of the legend that the two places must be related.

* Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers.

The supernatural Aghori

The Aghori is considered to be a religious cult that broke away from the overarching Hindu religion in the 14th century AD. In Hindu mythology, it is believed that everything emanates from “Brahman” and that no evil exists.

An Aghori sits by the Ganges in Varanasi.:

Aghori followers take this interpretation further by believing that everything is god and to abandon anything is sacrilege. This belief manifests itself into crude rituals, particularly their practice of dwelling near cremation grounds and eating the corpse of the deceased. The term Aghori is basically an Indian concept. This usually refers to sadhus who have powers that are supernatural. The Aghori involves in post mortem rituals. They deal with the dead and that makes them social outcast. There are many stories that have been doing rounds about the Aghori and what they are capable of. The Aghori lives in places where no living being will enter.

Varanasi  The sacred city of India situated in the Ganga valley and along the banks of Ganges. As the holy place of pilgrimage, it is regularly visited by Hindus, who come to have a dip in the holy water. The birth place of many great scholars, it plays host to many foreigners. #seatsofthegoddess:

They do not fear the dead or death. They can be found in places where human bodies are cremated or burnt as per Hindu customs. They smear the ashes of human bodies on their own body. They can be seen holding a human skull. This is also true that many Hindu gods like Lord Shiva and Goddess Kali can also be seen holding skulls. The Aghori is seldom liked by the normal people and they prefer to stay away from them. The beliefs and activities of the Aghori are quite against the Hindu religious sentiments. Some say that the Aghori can cure many diseases using their powers to heal. These powers are acquired as the Aghori lives in haunted houses and often use the ghosts and the spirits for this healing. The Aghori involves in a lot of sadhna and tamasic rituals that make their practices quite difficult to follow and understand. They are not even tantric. They are beyond all these and much more powerful at times. The Aghori belive that Lord Shiva is the one who is responsible for all that is happening around us. He is the one who controls all the conditions and effects. This is why even death and dead bodies are perfect and they must be accepted and appreciated in some form. If we do this we will be able to appreciate the sacredness of life and its manifestations. The word Aghor literally means, that which is not difficult or terrible.

A sadhu of the cannibal Hindu sect Aghori -

Aghor is simple and natural state of consciousness. There is no place for feelings of fear, hatred, disgust or discrimination in the eyes of an Aughar. Aperson who practices these virtues may be designated as an Aughar. With constant practice when the soul isestablished in that state, such a person becomes an Avadhuta regardless of his path. An Aghoreshwar is an Avadhut who has gone through all the various stages of Aghor and then has returned to society for the benefit of others. Even though an Aghoreshwar remains above and beyond all social and material illusions, distinctions, and categories, he can bring many social reforms into effect. Realizing his divine nature, retaining the carefree, unattached Aghor state of being, he may have at the same time the appearance of one observing the contemporary social norm rather than a recluse.

Shiva Raj Giri, Naga baba (naked sadhu) in Haridwar telling mantras with his mala. #Mala has 108 beads.:

The term Aghor goes back to the farthest reaches of time. One of the five faces of Shiva was known as Aghor. The word is as old as Shiva himself. In the SHIVA PURANA, one of India’s oldest legends, there is a hymn to the glory of Shiva by Pushpadanta, head of the Gandharvas, called the Shiva Mahimnah Stotram.

* Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers.

Baby Jumping Festival

The Baby Jumping Festival held each year in Castillo de Murcia near Burgos. Anyone who has a newborn addition to their family can bring their baby along to this festival known as the El Colacho which has taken place on an annual basis since way back in the 1620’s.

The festival itself is part of the celebrations held all over Spain for the Catholic festival of Corpus Christi and whilst at this particular time many other cities and towns have spectacular processions and a variety of other popular means of revelling and enjoying themselves, there is only one Baby Jumping Festival. The babies are laid on the ground in swaddling clothes and grown men, yes adult males, dressed as devils jump over the infants and this is supposed to cleanse them of all evil doings. The question of who is protecting the babies from the example being set by the adults begs to be asked but who are we to doubt this traditional combination of religion and Spanish folklore which proves to be great fun, if not a little scary, to watch.

* Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers.

The chronicles of Bagan Pagodas & Temples

The monuments seem to overwhelm the landscape. There are about 2,000 of them covering an area of 16 square miles on the eastern bank of the Ayeyarwady in central Myanmar. They are in different sizes and in a bewildering variety of shapes. They are also in varying stages of preservation and disrepair. Some of them throb with life, visited by devotees, a few have become little more than piles of bricks.Tradition has it that Bagan was founded by Thamoddarit in the early 2nd century. But perhaps it would be better to date the Bagan of the monuments from its establishment as a walled city, with twelve gates and a moat, by King Pyinbya in 849.

The chronicles give a list of kings who reigned at Bagan from Thamoddarit onwards, with Pyinbya as the 34th king. But legend is inextricably mingled with history, and sometimes overshadow it, in the accounts of the kings in the chronicles, and it is only with the 42nd king in the list, Anawrahta, that Bagan emerges into the clear light of history.Myanmar is one of the most devout Buddhist countries in the world. Although the shades of the countryside vary from lush green to a golden, sunburnt yellow there is one color that shines brightly throughout the nation: the glittering gold of thousands of pagodas and temples. From the smallest village shrine set in the bough of a graceful old tree to the glory of the huge pagodas and temples of the bigger cities a journey through Myanmar is a non-stop succession of religious wonders. Yangon’s Shwedagon Paya, Mandalay’s Mahamuni Paya and Bagan’s plain of temples shouldn’t be missed, but there are also many other lesser-known Buddhist religious sites that will impress you with their beauty and spirituality.

* Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ animals/ yoga/ places  are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. all image credit goes to their Photographers.

Best Leisure and Holidays Destinations in Asia

The leisure and tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. It covers a whole spectrum of activities, from visiting a tourist attraction and going to a health club to eating in a restaurant or travelling abroad.Tourism is one of the world’s largest economic activities, providing social and physical development as well as profitable investment and trade.

Top Best Leisure & Holidays Destinations in Asia

Chiang Mai, Thailand

The kingdom of Thailand lies in the heart of Southeast Asia, making it a natural gateway to Indochina, Myanmar and Southern China. Its shape and geography divide into four natural regions : the mountains and forests of the North; the vast rice fields of the Central Plains; the semi-arid farm lands of the Northeast plateau; and the tropical islands and long coastline of the peninsula South. Nestled into the foothills of northern Thailand, Chiang Mai is a sanctuary. The pace is laid-back, the accouterments are international and the landscape is picturesque. It is a fine urban specimen with a much-celebrated traditional culture ideal for sightseers, nature buffs and city connoisseurs.

Penang, Malaysia

Penang is a state in Malaysia located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Strait of Malacca. Penang state is bordered by Kedah in the north and east, and Perak in the south. Penang, also known as the pearl of the orient, is one of the most touristic locations of Malaysia. The island (285 square meters) is situated on the northwest side of the Peninsular Malaysia. There are loads of activities and sights on the island. Hanging around on the beach is also considered a fine option. About 700.000 people inhabit Penang Island, of which 59% are Chinese, 32% are Malay and 7% are Indian (2% are of other origin). The state of Penang has a population of 1,5 million (of which 43% are Malay and 41% Chinese). Penang has an eventful history; the diversity of the inhabitants clearly indicates this. Penang is especially known as the best place to enjoy wonderful local dishes; it is seen as the food capital of Malaysia. There are many hotels and resorts on the island, most are located in and around the city of Georgetown and around the towns Batu Ferringhi and Tanjung Bungah.


The Republic of Singapore is an independent nation in Southeast Asia. Located at the tip of the Malay Peninsula, separated only by the narrow Strait of Johor from the mainland, it is a prosperous nation whose people enjoy one of the highest standards of living in Asia. Though physically small, Singapore is an economic giant. It has been Southeast Asia’s most modern city for over a century. The city blends Malay, Chinese, Arab, Indian and English cultures and religions. Its unique ethnic tapestry affords visitors a wide array of sightseeing and culinary opportunities from which to choose. A full calendar of traditional festivals and holidays celebrated throughout the year adds to its cultural appeal. In addition, Singapore offers luxury hotels, delectable cuisine and great shopping! The island nation of the Republic of Singapore lies one degree north of the Equator in Southern Asia. The country includes the island of Singapore and 58 or so smaller islands. Because of its efficient and determined government, Singapore has become a flourishing country that excels in trade and tourism and is a model to developing nations. The capital city, also called Singapore, covers about a third of the area of the main island.

Siem Reap, Cambodia

Siem Reap province is located in northwest Cambodia. It is the major tourist hub in Cambodia, as it is the closest city to the world famous temples of Angkor (the Angkor temple complex is north of the city). The provincial capital is also called Siem Reap and is located in the South of the province on the shores of the Tonle Sap Lake, the greatest sweet water reserve in whole Southeast Asia. The name of the city literally means Siamese defeated, referring to the victory of the Khmer Empire over the army of the Thai kingdom in the 17th century.

Beijing, China

Being capital of the People’s Republic of China, it is the nation’s political, economic, cultural, educational and international trade and communication center. Located in northern China, close to the port city of Tianjin and partially surrounded by Hebei Province, it also serves as the most important transportation hub and port of entry.As one of the six ancient cities in China, it has been the heart and soul of politics and society throughout its long history and consequently there is an unparalleled wealth of discovery to delight and intrigue travelers as they explore the city’s ancient past and exciting modern development. Now it has become one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world, with about 140 million Chinese tourists and 4.4 million international visitors in a year.

Bali, Indonesia

Bali is an exotic jewel in the long island chain of Indonesia. One of the world’s most loved destinations, as rich in culture as stunning tropical beauty, Bali can leave an impression that lasts a lifetime. This website aims to be the definitive guide for your trip, presenting the finest hotels and resorts, up-to-the-minute travel guides and personally researched information so you can plan your holiday easily. Bali is magical. As probably the most famous island in Indonesia, Bali blends spectacular mountain scenery and beautiful beaches with warm and friendly people, a vibrant culture and out of this world resorts. Travel & Leisure Magazine has awarded Also known as the Land of the Gods, Bali appeals through its sheer natural beauty of looming volcanoes and lush terraced rice fields that exude peace and serenity. Bali enchants with its dramatic dances and colorful ceremonies, its arts and crafts, to its luxurious beach resorts and exciting night life.  For this exotic island has much to offer, from inspirational spirituality to fine dining and meeting experiences, from world class surfing and diving to exhilarating treks in the wild. And everywhere you will find intricately carved temples.

Tokyo, Japan

Tokyo  is Japan’s capital and the world’s most populous metropolis. It is also one of Japan’s 47 prefectures, consisting of 23 central city wards and multiple cities, towns and villages west of the city center. The Izu and Ogasawara Islands are also part of Tokyo. Prior to 1868, Tokyo was known as Edo. A small castle town in the 16th century, Edo became Japan’s political center in 1603 when Tokugawa Ieyasu established his feudal government there. A few decades later, Edo had grown into one of the world’s most populous cities. With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the emperor and capital moved from Kyoto to Edo, which was renamed Tokyo (“Eastern Capital”). Large parts of Tokyo were destroyed in the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and in the air raids of 1945. Tokyo is not only the political and economical center of Japan, it has also emerged as a center of the world economy and culture. There are a number of attractions in Tokyo that should not be missed. There are large-scale downtown areas, including Ginza where famous shops from around the world stand side by side, the sleepless Shinjuku that has become the “new city center of Tokyo,” Asakusa which is reminiscent of the traditional Edo (the former name of Tokyo), and Shibuya that starts the trends for the young people. Other unique areas include the computer town Akihabara, a dense retail area where numerous electronic shops compete against each other, attracting many shoppers from Japan and overseas, and Tsukiji, an open-air wholesale food market catering to shops and consumers everywhere in Japan.

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What is Medical Tourism? How Travel Agents plays a great role to grow Medical Tourism in India?

Medical Tourism- A great oldest treatment system. A patient going to a different country for either urgent or elective medical procedures is called medical tourism. Medical tourism is a term that has risen from the rapid growth of an industry, where people from all around the world are traveling to other countries to obtain medical and surgical care. Medical tourism is next booming sector in India as information technology.

Medical tourism in India has emerged as the fastest growing segment of tourism industry. High cost of treatments in the developed countries, particularly in the US and the UK, and scarcity of quality medical treatment in African and other SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) countries has been a driving force for patients from such regions to look for alternative and cost-effective destinations. Although the Indian medical tourism industry is presently at a crescent stage, it holds out enormous potential for future growth and development. It has been estimated that India’s share in the global medical tourism industry will reach around three per cent by the end of 2013. Moreover, medical tourism is expected to generate revenue worth $3.25 billion by 2013, growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of around 26 per cent between 2011 and 2013.

The number of offshore medical tourists is anticipated to grow at approximately 19 per cent during the forecast period to reach 1.3 million by 2013.India represents the largest potential medical tourism market in the world. Factors such as low cost, scale and range of treatments along with the expertise provided differentiate it from other medical tourism destinations. It also acts as a vacation spot for many to recover after their treatment. Growth in this market would be a boon for several associated industries, such as hospitals, medical equipment makers and the pharmaceutical industry. It is considered to be a sunshine sector considering that it is the only industry in India that was unaffected by the worldwide recession. Its growth has in turn helped to improve the healthcare and infrastructural facilities in India. India has some of the best hospitals and medical institutes in the world.

This could be attributed to medical expertise, high-end technology and equipment which is of a high standard and superior quality, while still being cost effective. The Indian healthcare industry is growing rapidly and is expected to become a $280 billion industry by 2020. Rise in income standards and an increase in older population, shifting demographics, disease variations and the explosion of lifestyle diseases in India are a few factors that are feeding this growth. Compared to other medical tourism destinations, India will inevitably take a lead, essentially due to the cost effectiveness of treatment available in this country.

How Travel Agents plays a great role to grow Medical Tourism in India


Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare) is a term used to describe the rapidly-growing practice of travelling across international borders to seek healthcare services. Services typically sought by travelers include elective procedures as well as complex surgeries, etc.In India Travel agents make travel arrangements for individuals or groups. They plan itineraries, make reservations for hotels, transportation, or tours. Also, prepare tickets, suggest places to go, give brochures, and gives all the information to the person traveling. Travel Agents are obviously acting as an agent when selling or booking accommodation, travel etc for clients. The typical relationship between a customer and the Travel Agent consists of the customer being the principal and the supplier of the services, whether it be accommodation or a means of travel, as the third party. However Travel Agents can act on behalf of the provider, making the customer the third party. In either arrangement the Agent is still responsible to their principal under the common laws which govern agency. With triumph of science, travelling has now become easy, cheap, quick and pleasant.

Due to invention of steamships railways, electricity, motor cars and aero planes, our journey from one place to and other place even in abroad has become very easy and comfortable. Travelling is now regarded as an important part of education. Educational Tours increases our knowledge and new thoughts and ideas grow up in us. The education of man remains incomplete if he does not visit important places of the world. Reading of books only provides man with half knowledge. But travelling with eyes wide open and mind fully gives him full knowledge. Travelling also removes his narrowness and superstitions. It makes a traveler smart and self-reliant. Owing to the fabulous progress in the field of communication, travelling today involves less hazards.

Hence, students must take part in educational tours. It is both entertaining and instructing for them. From Kashmir valley to Kanyakumari and from Kutch to Kalimpong, in the east, our country provides hundreds of places known for architecture, climate, scenery, environment, history, development, industry, culture, music, dance, religion a fauna. Then there are seats of learning, which one may like to visit. Educational tours exposes your mind to the diverse cultures of India.
Advantages of Medical Tourism in India

1) The biggest advantage of medical travel in India Top Quality Healthcare Services At Low Cost.India Has State Of The Art Hospitals And The Best Qualified Doctors

2) Technological advancements and highly educated doctors and nurses, Facilities And Infrastructure In India At Par With International Standards

3) The Availability of latest medical instruments for treatment

4) High health care standards offered by various Groups, Patients From More Than 50 Countries Treated In India

5) No language barrier as English is widely spoken across India. Moreover many hospitals in India hire native translators for patients from African countries so that they can communicate effectively.

6) Relaxed visa rules, Visa on India arrival for patients from specific countries and India Rated Among The Top 5 Favorite Tourism Destinations Worldwide

* Information on the traditional uses and properties of herbs/ places/ yoga/ peoples are provided on this site is for educational use only, and is not intended as medical advice. All image credit goes to their Photographers.