Akbar was one of the most powerful emperors of the Mughal Dynasty and the greatest Muslim ruler who built a large empire expanding over most of the Indian subcontinent. Right from the age of 13 when he took over the reins of the Mughal Empire, he conquered and subjugated territories and states in the northern, western and eastern regions, especially Punjab, Delhi, Agra, Rajputana, Gujarat, Bengal, Kabul, Kandahar and Baluchistan, to bring most of India under his control. Despite being illiterate, he possessed exceptional knowledge in almost all subjects. He earned high respect from his non-Muslim subjects, mainly due to his adoption of policies that created a peaceful atmosphere in his diverse empire. He also re-organized taxation systems, divided his army following the mansabdari system, and established foreign relations with the West. Being a patron of art and culture, he got a number of literature books written in various languages and constructed numerous architectural masterpieces during his reign, such as Agra Fort, Buland Darwaza, Fatehpur Sikri, Humayun Tomb, Allahabad Fort, Lahore Fort, and his own mausoleum at Sikandra. He started a new sect ‘Din-i-Ilahi’ by deriving elements from various religions. The greatest flourishing of northern Indian culture, art, and imperial strength undoubtedly took place during the reign of the Mughal monarchs of the 16th and 17th centuries. The Mughals were Central Asian descendents of the great Mongol warriors Ghengis Khan and Timur. The Mughals seized power and held on to it by using various methods. The system of government used by the Mughals was also efficent in helping the Mughals to hold on to their power. But the Mughals didn’t flourish too long, after the new ruler Auranzeb took control.The Mughal’s gained power and were able to hold on to it by Akbar’s expert use of diplomacy. Akbar added new territory to the Mughal empire. Along with new territory came diverse ethnicity and problems. To prevent problems Akbar secured the allegiance of the diverse populations within his empire. At the height of his political power, Akbar ended the taxes on non-Muslims and permitted Hindus to build new temples, creating religious tolerance. He also secured Hindu support by negotiating peace treaties.The system of government used by the Mughals was very effcient in holding on to their power. Akbar divided his empire into provinces and districts, giving local governors salaries instead of land grants. This way if the officials were dependent on the central government for income, they would probably not rebel. Akbar set up an efficient tax collecting system and made an effort to ensure that it was applied fairly. Later years however, when Akabar’s son and grandson ruled they increased taxes to support military campaigns.However, the Mughals decline set stage rapidly when Auranzeb took leadership. Religious intolerance was at it’s height during Auranzeb’s rule. His policy caused tension between Hindus and Muslims. Hindu rulers challenged Auranzeb, he reacted by reinstating a tax on non-muslims and destroying many Hindu temples.